American Economy and the End of Laissez-Faire – 4 of 13 – The Rise and Fall of Monopolies

The American Economy and the End of Laissez-Faire: 1870 to World War II

4. The Rise and Fall of Monopolies
Lecture by Murray N. Rothbard

Petroleum entered the industrial scene in 1859 with John D. Rockefeller’s hard work. As the first manufacturing corporation, Standard Oil created a monopoly in kerosene refining by buying others out. A huge drop in the price of fuel followed, benefiting consumers, due to production efficiencies. Rothbard, then, discusses pietists, prohibitionists and the big political shift of 1896.

Pietists, prohibitionists, anti-immigrationists, and women suffragettes had made a big Republican drive before 1890. But then a big, sudden shift in politics occurred, with Democrats capturing the big Midwest states, due to demographics of Germans, higher birth rates, anti-prohibitionists, and hard money standards. After this, the Republican party got more moderate and the Democratic party got captured by extreme pietists in 1896. The South became a fully Democratic region. The Panic of 1893 resulted in the loss of Democratic seats due to the depression. By 1896 Bryanites were taking over the party. German Lutherans, and Catholics became majority-party Republicans, leaving the Irish to become minority-party Democratic civil servants. This situation lasts until 1932. The parties become non-ideological. Statists prevailed.

Lecture 4 of 13 presented in Fall of 1986 at the New York Polytechnic University.

This lecture as a Podcast: http://enemyofthestate.podomatic.com/

Sourced from: https://mises.org/library/american-economy-and-end-laissez-faire-1870-world-war-ii

Source: American Economy and the End of Laissez-Faire – 4 of 13 – The Rise and Fall of Monopolies – YouTube

http://www.readrothbard.com/american-economy-and-the-end-of-laissez-faire-4-of-13-the-rise-and-fall-of-monopolie

TRANSCRIPT

00:00
we start with Coco – conservatives and
00:04
campers one and two which covers the
00:07
merger movement which we’ll get through
00:08
probably next Tuesday maybe Thursday I
00:13
have two things sure this page is 1156
00:21
he might find Coco’s not a great writer
00:24
unfortunately but he’s an excellent book
00:25
you have to slog away for a little bit
00:27
so anyone I said I want to talk me after
00:30
you cook me after client any right okay
00:36
we get now to oil one of the great booms
00:39
of the post-civil war period petroleum
00:43
it starts energy in those days were
00:46
mostly heat light with whale oil in
00:50
other words whale oil was a major lamps
00:51
were whale oil and ways I mentioned this
00:54
last time about whales yeah okay so
00:56
whales began to disappear petroleum
00:58
begins to come in 1859 is the first oil
01:03
well in western Pennsylvania and we now
01:07
the next saw the next great tycoon in
01:09
this period report john d rockefeller
01:13
who said mister petroleum and like most
01:19
of the other tycoons he was born poor
01:23
born in western new york and therefore
01:25
with a Pyatt st the baptist his mother
01:28
was his father with sort of rub that
01:31
said before were they itinerant pat
01:34
melton salesman so i was for the guy
01:36
like a music man selling elixir
01:39
curable health or whatever he always had
01:42
an interest in the health market are his
01:45
mother was there for his most many
01:47
christian homes in general mother was a
01:49
carrier religious transmitter of
01:51
religious values brought john d up and
01:54
the proprietors tradition hard work not
01:57
showing your emotion the very sort of a
01:59
very calm collected person
02:02
small beady eyes not too much expression
02:05
face and born to thrift and hard work of
02:10
course a typical policy ethic and save
02:18
it pennies an elector suddenly in a
02:19
traditional so-called stereotype you go
02:21
short once again both in short trail of
02:27
at night over the super tycoon with hope
02:30
here I think JPMorgan was the only
02:31
really tall person who loved this
02:33
six-foot between those days event quite
02:35
unusual the whole idea of everybody
02:38
being six foot and higher it only comes
02:39
in and the 20th century with improved
02:41
nutrition so he was tall and also
02:45
commanding presence weight about two
02:47
hundred pounds you know we saw a guy
02:49
who’s back on the movie sort of guys
02:50
total only look like at I acted like a
02:52
movie tycoon top commanding present most
02:55
these other guys however thought you
02:56
wouldn’t notice them it didn’t know that
02:58
we had a billion dollars and they right
03:01
he grows up poor Johnny Rockefeller he
03:04
born in western New York on the heart of
03:06
pie at this country the age of fourteen
03:09
his family moved to Cleveland and begin
03:13
a fourth Yankee Pie ëthis grows up in
03:15
Cleveland and starts off and like didn’t
03:17
go to none of these guys went to college
03:19
you have to realize the college was only
03:20
for wealthy sons okay and didn’t waste
03:25
time going to college he starts off as a
03:28
poor bookkeeper and got the job of the
03:32
age of 18 or something the bookkeeper
03:35
and pretty soon becomes a commissioned
03:38
grocer and how did he become a
03:39
commissioned grocer he say didn’t get a
03:41
bank loan you guys have no credits going
03:44
back on what he does he start to see
03:45
save money from the small income of the
03:48
bookkeeper saves up with money and start
03:50
the Commission grocery business with a
03:51
partner a couple of partners the quarks
03:55
and gets the money from I said well
03:58
saves out money boss of mine from the
03:59
Father than how much either
04:02
gets money from friends a little bit and
04:04
starts the Commission grow our hotel
04:05
Commission grocery business grocer and
04:12
and and and becomes with silver
04:14
merchants and yep gets flowers back
04:17
profit in other word the way these guys
04:18
almost invariably these entrepreneurs
04:20
like Hill and like Rockefeller and like
04:23
Hanuman’s will see you later
04:24
these guys really start off their poor
04:26
Carnegie and they start working inside
04:28
when they start plowing back profits and
04:31
get borrowing money from relative our
04:34
coming like that and just saving up and
04:36
plowing back and he gets and rockin so
04:43
Rockefeller Clark they start with a
04:44
little same working hotel worker doesn’t
04:47
in 1858 he’s now he’s born 1939 through
04:51
now 2119 good name nineteen years old he
04:55
strikes out into his own commission
04:57
grocery business there was a couple of
04:59
partners in his own age and and as he
05:05
comes along he he finds out that there’s
05:07
a the oil birth of the story another
05:09
word from western Pennsylvania begin
05:10
they have well 1859 over by 1860 and he
05:15
finds a friend of his a guy named Andrew
05:18
who has a small oil refinery notifying
05:21
me that small cell come where you have
05:23
to realized the very small operation and
05:26
Andrews comes to Rockefeller on Clark I
05:29
said look when we have our and along
05:31
with a hotel Rosenberg doesn’t want you
05:32
have a little oil refinery and then you
05:34
get the gun get him get oil from my
05:36
railroad or something like that
05:38
what’s the Pennsylvania and so they
05:40
start up and that’s a Rockefeller with
05:42
sent as a youngster western Pennsylvania
05:46
in 1862 now is nothing much going on
05:47
here flash-in-the-pan is petroleum but
05:50
anyway keeps his eyes open and by 1862
05:54
they expand
05:56
– wholesale for refinery mostly making
06:00
of course kerosene you have to realize
06:02
that those days kerosene was the only
06:03
real product and that was a major
06:05
thankful for lamps gasoline with a waste
06:08
no use for gasoline a little bit of
06:10
residual not much or use for anything
06:11
out so when you’re finally of course you
06:14
have a fractionated sort of system
06:16
especially later on you can adjust the
06:18
fracture to some extent and of course
06:20
they they’re made as much care of thing
06:22
as they could have little gasoline as
06:23
they could that’s wings at the waist of
06:25
it sunny right it’s not a small kerosene
06:30
refinery along with the hotel grocery
06:32
business and in in 1865 Rockefeller
06:39
realizes this oil thing is a real big
06:41
thing here the Clark doesn’t think so
06:43
another worker what happens is
06:44
Rockefeller and Andrews buy out but
06:47
Clark they split the business in other
06:48
word the Clarks I’m sure to that
06:51
laughing regret get the wholesale grocer
06:53
of business ok and Rockefeller and
06:56
Andrews out set up they specialize in
06:59
refinery and and some of the anti
07:05
Rockefeller historians claimed by the
07:06
Rockefeller somehow squeeze out call
07:08
whether squeezing out they old saw the
07:09
situation Rockefeller and rose realized
07:11
that oil is a big thing Clark didn’t
07:13
think so and so Clark’s remain with the
07:15
grocery business and their tough luck do
07:17
they like a fourth sight son any rate in
07:23
this situation this is 1865
07:30
Andrews was a technologist he was an oil
07:33
refinery with he knew a lot about oil
07:34
refiner
07:35
Rockefeller was a financier you know
07:37
much about technology there’s a great
07:38
person marvel at cutting costs and
07:41
improving the finance of the business
07:43
and so Andrew the inside man handling
07:46
the technology of it Rocka Hall with
07:48
handling the cost in 1867 rockefeller by
07:53
way always had a always great at doing
07:55
this he was a genius of finding good
07:57
people and getting teams of people in
08:00
1867 they expand the business they
08:02
include a whole bunch of other people to
08:05
increase the capital investment and the
08:07
management team they get a bunch of
08:11
people they’ve been named Flagler
08:12
becomes a partner rockefeller Andrews
08:14
and flag group Flagler and why go ahead
08:18
a part of it of money goes to the
08:19
son-in-law of mr. Harkness it was a big
08:21
shot quite wealthy businessman and
08:23
Cleveland and so you they all come into
08:26
the business and they start expanding
08:27
for by 1867 Rockefeller Andrews in
08:32
Flagler has atop the biggest refinery in
08:34
Cleveland which is the biggest in the
08:36
country the Cleveland has a center this
08:38
is western Pennsylvania the center of
08:40
crude oil Cleveland is now the center of
08:42
refinery you know you refine the orient
08:44
ship it course the Great Lakes it’s a
08:45
beautiful kind of situation you have
08:47
come up with the Pennsylvania first by
08:50
railroad and then eventually when the
08:51
railroads try to increase the fare the
08:54
rate they do if they build a pipeline in
08:56
the words the pipelines a way to compete
08:57
with railroad of course so you can’t
09:00
railroad can’t get you’re a very high
09:01
price and then you ship the thing out
09:04
you know the foreign countries or
09:06
whatever the East so so he gets to
09:11
another words very quickly by 1867
09:13
you’ve got the largest refinery clean of
09:15
1870 that the largest refinery in the
09:17
world a very short period of time is all
09:20
due mostly to it on the floor the
09:21
Rockefellers financial a business genius
09:24
but he doesn’t cut course he innovates
09:27
in marketing and in a finery technology
09:32
and the market and also organization the
09:34
first company have really centralized
09:36
business control committee system alters
09:39
of stuff where you
09:39
you in supervised different parts of the
09:41
business cost-cutting finding ways of
09:45
coming in and the lowest possible rates
09:47
of transportation etc etc so they did a
09:52
lot of innovation in this kind of and
09:53
business practices and with lower cost
09:57
you have a tremendous increase in the
09:58
supply of kerosene and due to
10:00
Rockefeller really the largest mostly
10:03
responsible for the boom we have
10:04
tremendous overtime tremendous cut and
10:07
carotene prices the benefit of consumers
10:09
benefit everybody in the whole business
10:10
world and energy gets cheaper and
10:13
cheaper due to the expansion of
10:15
Rockefeller refinery they’re not holding
10:18
the Rockefeller system and along with
10:21
him come bring it manager enterpreneur
10:24
fight in other words teams of people who
10:26
from that day to this are always
10:28
invested with the rock volcano was the
10:29
Rockefeller financial power and
10:30
political powers will see later comes
10:32
not just from his own wealth his own
10:34
family but teams of families who have
10:36
been with him whatever since the
10:37
Hartness is Flagler’s worth the Pratt
10:44
Pratt love them
10:45
Thanks Rockefeller Standard Oil person
10:48
making something they incorporate I
10:50
should finishing tasks here become the
10:52
foremost management manufacturing
10:54
corporation to that point
10:55
it’s so big by this point they
10:56
incorporated the standard will of Ohio
10:58
first of the Standard Oil beginning of
11:01
the Standard Oil system so hyoe other
11:06
words these are all partnerships and
11:07
this is one of the first manufacturing
11:08
corporations maybe the first big one the
11:12
harness is the Pratt the Bedford’s
11:16
flag loads etc basta wake so they all
11:20
they continue the pains I already
11:23
mentioned secretary of Navy Whitney
11:25
campaign and there’s still an other
11:27
words they still invest with a lock of
11:29
all they move with the Rockefellers was
11:30
like one it’s like a whole flagship
11:33
which gives the Rockefellers enormous
11:35
financial power because the knots all to
11:37
move this whole group moves with look
11:41
any rate the so we have the whole the
11:46
enemy in them but they build pipelines
11:47
and a whole marketing system and really
11:50
sandal off begins the idea retail retail
11:53
freakin bulk and all that sort of stuff
11:55
and very quickly Rockefeller I get some
11:57
insanity law got the monopoly over the
11:58
whole world oil market because it really
12:01
the first very little foreign oil much
12:03
later Tilly 1890s or so and so you have
12:06
in Western Europe and in Asia rocker
12:08
pannel overcome the major exporter of
12:11
petroleum products so you have see how
12:25
it show how kerosene prices were fell in
12:27
this whole period give you an idea the
12:31
enormous benefit to consumer and the
12:32
whole economy start off in 1863 the
12:36
beginning of the world boom pipes of
12:39
kerosene forty five cents a gallon by
12:48
1872 few years after so hyoe was founded
12:54
to fight with kerosene at 4-under
12:56
elevenths of twenty-two cents a gallon
13:00
by 1874 founded eleven cents a gallon
13:08
and by by the mid 1890s in other words
13:11
at the end of this great moon here found
13:15
of six cents a gallon this is a 90 cent
13:19
87 percent drop from 1853 eighty-nine
13:22
enormous and those people belly aching
13:25
about Rockefeller family and monopoly
13:27
look at the Rope of the so-called
13:28
monopoly monopoly means you cut
13:30
production raise prices this is an
13:32
unbelievable drop in prices as supply
13:36
and production increases the supply
13:37
monopoly we can all enjoy
13:43
and their various stories about how he
13:46
buildeth up
13:47
they claimed for example he said he
13:52
would what he tried to do he wanted to
13:55
get a monopoly as I mentioned briefly
13:57
last time he tried to get a monopoly of
14:02
refining not he didn’t try for crude oil
14:04
is impossible who all everywhere and so
14:07
I didn’t try of even for export her
14:09
retail business out of one point by 1879
14:11
1880 he managed to get about 90 percent
14:14
of the monopoly the refinery business in
14:18
the United States that was the PE and he
14:21
started the climbing after that and the
14:24
reason is I think I mentioned is that he
14:25
would pay full dollar you know for
14:28
anybody’s honeymoon opera he wanted to
14:29
buy the monopoly and by the year the the
14:31
refinery out as object was the race
14:33
prices and production rate fighting
14:35
never able to do it because people would
14:37
produce refinery just installing the
14:38
Rockefeller make it as a sucker the
14:42
story that grew up by Australian was the
14:43
way he got a monopoly or almost monopoly
14:46
he undercut people
14:47
it’s called predatory price cutting
14:49
where he deliberately cut the price and
14:52
drove them out of business and then
14:54
raised the price after that
15:00
large businesses are often accuses it
15:02
never happened there’s not one case on
15:04
record Rockefeller doing that if you do
15:07
that you drive people out of business
15:08
first of all you’ll make losses in the
15:09
meantime let’s say if you finally drive
15:11
a guy out of business and he goes
15:12
bankrupt the plan of a mention lifetime
15:15
plan is still a oh yeah refinery doesn’t
15:16
disappear somebody else buys it at
15:18
auction bankrupt the auction get the
15:19
frozen pizza again and then you have to
15:21
knuckle the same thing of thinking yeah
15:22
so Rockefeller never did that but he did
15:25
was the way he got a got these knobblies
15:27
he bought them out he paid a very high
15:28
handsome price for it but what the
15:30
refinery and there’s a story about a guy
15:34
for example who claimed that he was the
15:37
press the anti Rockefeller press let’s
15:39
say which is mostly by the way Morgan
15:41
subsidized we get through later claim of
15:46
a guy named George price is a small oil
15:47
refinery he was a victimized by
15:49
Rockefeller he’s driven out of nonsense
15:51
what he did was he kept going to
15:53
different areas he would kind of cut
15:54
prices against Rockefeller build a
15:55
refinery Rock Hall would buy it and he
15:57
goes a hundred miles away and build
15:58
another a finer up I’ll have to buy that
16:00
and he made a lot of money that way he
16:02
made for example he built a refinery in
16:07
Rockefeller wanted a Bryant for twenty
16:09
thousand dollars which of course is
16:10
worth about $200,000 nine hundred sixty
16:12
thousand at least he wouldn’t do it he
16:15
finally hold out for five hundred
16:16
thousand dollars Rockefeller buy it for
16:18
five hundred thousand it finally is one
16:19
of the reason why I stopped buying stock
16:20
right how was it why should I pay the
16:22
jerks that he called black may only just
16:24
stopped it and from then on the share of
16:27
Rockefeller oil share kept going down
16:29
steadily after that a lower finally
16:34
market so there were lots of refineries
16:38
there were who even in 1980s even of the
16:42
period when he got 90% of the share era
16:45
there were about 93 in the pen
16:47
refineries we’re constantly getting 15
16:49
of 10 15 20 for some of the sales
16:55
the what they as Santa got bigger they
17:06
were finally got a whole crust set up a
17:08
whole bunch of family loves in many
17:10
states in Santa where of New York San
17:12
well california santa where of indiana
17:15
and they finally expanded well in New
17:16
Jersey it was the basic holding company
17:17
or so-called trust which they merged the
17:22
one company is essentially was the
17:23
holding company for all the others and
17:26
when he became the Central Corridor
17:29
aquacolor Empire in 1899 it was
17:34
capitalized on a ten million dollar that
17:36
was consider enormous for that for that
17:38
period of still not as much as right
17:40
bank so that was that with the biggest
17:42
corporations the fans Rockefeller began
17:53
Fabio I have them I have a percentage
17:57
here got a little bit less than this
18:00
fine 1890 useless right eighty-five
18:03
percent head goes down steadily I
18:06
mentioned last time for to basic
18:08
standard or involve alcohol is probably
18:10
gonna require around 1914 when he lived
18:12
told he warned 1839 little eighteen from
18:15
1947 by the 1898
18:17
I mean why he was less active a per se
18:20
1900 is sung took over and grandsons but
18:24
anyway the brother he began to get
18:28
bureaucratic and began to miss out on
18:30
the on one shift out of kerosene because
18:34
electricity came in and to the chip into
18:37
gasoline after 1900 or so ago a Buick
18:39
came in so in Rockefeller Standard Oil
18:42
they thought no no kerosene is always
18:45
going to be the key thing gasoline is a
18:46
flash in the pan out tricity the flash
18:47
the Pantages came bureaucratic and
18:50
similarly they didn’t they missed out on
18:51
the Texas Oklahoma will
18:54
so quite light we permitted new
18:58
progressive new small company like
18:59
Texaco and Gulf that come in describe
19:01
color Benny Texas and Oklahoma crude any
19:12
rate the for example in 1899 60 63
19:22
percent of the oil refined of the
19:24
fraction with kerosene in other word
19:26
everything most much as possibly ports
19:29
on the kerosene by 1919 you’re going
19:31
fifteen percent the rest going in the
19:33
gasoline and the fraction of gasoline is
19:35
the top of the fraction and kerosene
19:37
comes next without those you know
19:39
residual oil way down the bottom so that
19:41
it’s fairly easy to shift proportions
19:43
and gasoline and kerosene
19:47
my father was an oil company chemist I
19:50
got grew up on a sort of stuff that’s
19:52
any rate the
19:56
and as I say when railroads try to
19:58
charge a high rate Rockefeller build
20:01
pipelines and then compete on the
20:02
transportation front again one of the
20:04
charges against family oil had a lot of
20:06
railroad rebates but everybody else had
20:07
railroad rebates as I mentioned before
20:09
every shipper had real big all the other
20:11
oil refiners had rebates and was a way
20:14
of railroad competing with each other
20:15
down from list price so by uh by the
20:26
1880s 1890s an oil had for example one
20:29
at their peak Santa welcome Jersey which
20:32
becomes the holding company for all the
20:34
sanatory 7% of the countries was finding
20:40
wavelets 1890 ladies they had 33% of the
20:47
crude oil so that was their peak crude
20:51
oil production never even try for a
20:53
monopoly of the crude oil but obviously
20:55
couldn’t do it huh Yeah right my baby I
21:16
mean thing is that the point is the
21:17
point of view consumer and that’s the
21:19
economy I think but they like a cheap
21:20
price then with a part of a predatory
21:30
now that’s that’s the madness now
21:32
because the predatory price cutting is
21:33
when we lower the price to drive your
21:35
competitor out of business and then
21:36
raise the price temporary thing us to
21:39
cut that’s the whole point
21:40
price cutting is when you’re simply
21:42
you’re cutting a price if you have
21:43
competition you’re trying to get more
21:45
seasoned customers like that
21:47
one thing businessmen never want to do
21:48
they don’t want to they never want to
21:50
raise the price encourage new
21:52
competitors to come in and then with
21:54
Pikesville examine again they’re stuck
21:55
with the new competitors you know that’s
21:56
something for an umbrella we’re
21:58
competitive prisoners men trying to have
22:00
their price as low as possible new
22:01
competitors won’t comment they don’t
22:03
want new competitors the only way to
22:05
keep the map you don’t have a government
22:06
in fourth card towel to have a price low
22:08
enough to the other profits profit
22:10
margin low enough so that other
22:12
competitors will be tender to come in so
22:14
you compete with it so the competition
22:16
is potential competition been pretty
22:18
strong for lattices very powerful
22:22
healthy oh yeah anime no might be huh
22:41
yeah right so for the time from that
22:45
competition is potential in other words
22:46
the key thing is you have competitors
22:49
and not just there on the spot but could
22:51
be there if you give you you can make it
22:52
misstep you raise the pike but both of
22:54
pre market level of thing other
22:56
competitive level other than firms can
22:58
come in so the point of view don’t
23:00
needing this thing you don’t even need
23:01
your thing competitors only have a
23:03
threat of potential competitors coming
23:04
in to undercut you that’s all it’s
23:07
really necessary and you always have a
23:08
few don’t have the government excluding
23:09
it the government doesn’t say somehow in
23:11
one way or the other you can’t come I’m
23:13
gonna compete that’s what I exclude them
23:15
so that’s that’s a really important the
23:25
the and we’re coming out of the pencil
23:28
about politics and what happens very
23:32
early in the game is the Rockefeller
23:34
begins to dominate the Republican Party
23:35
of Ohio called of course a Republican
23:38
being a hiatus if he has to dominate it
23:43
and and through for example a guy who
23:50
was the well I’m basically saying fourth
23:55
one of the lessons of this whole court
23:57
in the sense of it and on the market the
24:00
implicit always he was very healthy
24:01
Rockefeller and all these other people
24:02
only on politics however with a
24:04
different story
24:06
anyway Rockefeller becomes through Mark
24:09
Hanna Marcus Alonzo Hannah with a
24:13
longtime state chairman of the
24:16
Republican Party of Ohio and when
24:23
McKinley ran for president 1896 from
24:25
Ohio
24:26
Hannah became chairman of Republican
24:28
National Committee truly powerful figure
24:30
running the Ohio Republican Party and
24:36
also happened to be a high school chum
24:38
of Rockefeller at Central High School in
24:40
Cleveland as I think I mentioned last
24:42
time if you happen to be a friend of
24:43
Rockefeller and grammar school high
24:44
school you’re in great shape for that
24:46
feel like okay high school classmate and
24:49
Chum
24:50
I’m Rockefeller also head of the Hanif
24:53
steel company which dealt and : iron and
24:57
steel business which don’t have been the
24:59
feeling of family and I would sell coal
25:01
and steel rails and separate to fan of
25:04
oil closely tied in other words
25:06
economically and politically and
25:08
personally with fan of oil they picked a
25:16
guy who was a first place and the thing
25:19
I mentioned but the Republican nominees
25:22
for president nominations for president
25:24
from 1870 to 1920 most of them came from
25:28
Ohio 1870
25:30
Rockefeller begins to get power out in
25:32
1870 with the founding of so high oh
25:34
then oh well behind 1876 paves Ohio
25:38
comes president runs for president
25:40
Republican ticket 1880 Garfield Ohio I’m
25:44
president 1884 88 was Harrison or Blaine
25:51
was upper hybrid Harrison with Indiana
25:54
1896 McKinley Ohio a 1909 thing 1908
26:03
William Howard Taft of Ohio 1920 Harding
26:09
Ohio then he have a very peculiar
26:12
situation enormous number of people
26:13
coming coming from Ohio 90 Ashley or
26:15
regular mainstream historian let’s say
26:17
well a Ohio the big state
26:18
we’re totally big state but all the big
26:20
stages Illinois New York why didn’t they
26:22
Pennsylvania why are they ever get any
26:23
presidential nomination Ohio mint
26:25
Rockefeller there was a higher
26:27
Republican Party in that period people
26:29
Rockefeller the Kinley for example who
26:31
was extremely bright guy was a
26:34
congressman well practically a hannah
26:37
tool who was sued you Hannah he was as a
26:41
matter of fact
26:43
McKinley went heavily at me became
26:45
governor in 1891 governor Ohio became
26:47
who had heavily into debt he actually
26:49
endorsed the note of some friend of his
26:51
a good beef
26:53
and he’s almost going bankrupt Hyodo how
26:55
does it cut thousands on really Grammys
26:57
and a million dollars net equivalent of
27:01
present-day person dollars and there’s
27:04
no way you get paid he wasn’t very he
27:05
wasn’t rich and so Hannah gets together
27:07
and of course if he going back you’re a
27:10
governor you go bankrupt
27:12
your political career goes out of tune
27:14
not be explained and suddenly governor
27:17
announces bankruptcy even these days
27:21
they couldn’t get away with it so Hannah
27:25
I guess together a whole bunch of other
27:27
industrialists including Rockefeller
27:28
worth and they save McKinley to bail
27:31
them out just they just kick in money to
27:33
McKinley and bail on that Hannah and so
27:36
Andrew Carnegie de was not from nothing
27:39
with some Pittsburgh course trick from
27:41
Pittsburgh George Pullman Lee in the
27:43
employment of Chicago with a Pullman
27:44
Company they all got together they Orem
27:46
where they all get together and bailout
27:47
McKinley of course this means reports
27:49
and then on McKinley who’s beholden to
27:51
Hana and Rockefeller obviously there’s
27:54
four lights so a right and they make the
27:58
run up for president 1996 also Senator
28:05
for a Cure who was a from Ohio with not
28:07
really at McKinley Rockefeller person he
28:09
was our payroll I was every every month
28:12
he collected check Standard Oil lock
28:14
call a perfect language meant that he
28:16
voted the correct manner on Garfield ran
28:19
in 1880 Rockefeller and Hanna
28:21
contributed very heavily at Garfield
28:22
campaign cetera et cetera many loans the
28:26
four-acre and McKinley in addition
28:27
assailing amount from bankruptcy so what
28:30
we have another word is essentially a
28:31
Rockefeller person
28:37
okay what happens that politically we
28:39
have a very peculiar situation now
28:40
coming into the picture right I’ve
28:42
already mentioned the beginning of the
28:44
court but I was always puzzled why you
28:45
have you had a hunt fights over banking
28:49
and gold and Paris which you’re now
28:51
issued can’t get people interested in
28:53
oil how come everybody’s interested I’m
28:54
related to the ethno-religious aspect
28:57
political party the another question
29:00
that comes in and I was always puzzled
29:02
about how come ladies a fair drop size
29:05
will seem pretty soon the course later
29:07
date fair which is very powerful
29:08
refreshing the Democratic Party
29:10
all of a sudden drops not by 1900
29:13
everybody becomes a so-called
29:14
progressive and and the whole whole
29:16
governmental system changes it becomes a
29:18
welfare more like a welfare warfare up
29:20
state that we have today nope and nobody
29:22
sticks up for late-day affair not like
29:24
you can say there various trends account
29:26
for but this is very sudden in other
29:27
words my teen up until 1896 the powerful
29:31
that leaves a ferret and sanam in the
29:32
United States at the 1900 is almost none
29:35
obviously something peculiar here would
29:37
need to be a can of pork and what an
29:39
accounts for it is essentially the
29:41
disappearance of a Democratic Party as
29:42
we have seen it we have known a in this
29:45
course until in 1890 1896 sort of a
29:48
claim kind of strophic a definite of
29:51
Democratic Party of the lays a fair
29:53
libertarian party
29:57
so that’s when we have to explore this
29:59
point the my notes here but what happens
30:22
something happens the seminal political
30:25
party structure in the United States it
30:31
begins to be obvious that Sider
30:33
Republicans like Rock Rockefeller and
30:34
McKinley and Hannah but the Democrats
30:37
are gradually beginning to take over by
30:39
about 1890 and some people saw it
30:43
earlier than others but this is a begins
30:47
to be clear in 1819 and even begins to
30:50
be clear even before that the for
30:56
example give you a couple of instances
30:58
what happens in the okay the big shifter
31:06
of 1819 1888 a House of Cleveland losers
31:12
a very close race for re-election 1888
31:14
Harrison gets in from Indiana Republican
31:16
Indiana and the dark courts nominee
31:21
that’s unusual post race fit in 1890
31:25
there before 89 of 1889
31:28
the House of Representatives was 51%
31:30
Republican which is more or less more or
31:34
less classic you know great clothes the
31:36
election congressional election of 1890
31:38
House Representative becomes 71 percent
31:41
Democrat this is a phenomenal phenomenon
31:44
happens this is the fourth civil war but
31:46
I’m only change very sudden also in 1890
31:53
and and Democrats capture every large
31:55
almost every large safe again very
31:57
unusual the another way to look at it
32:04
with the tech League the important
32:05
states of the Midwest and the Midwest in
32:09
those days was considered six state
32:13
Illinois Indiana Ohio Wisconsin and
32:17
Michigan all very powerful important
32:20
things in 1888 the Republicans had six
32:28
governors knows of these six states you
32:31
know there’s only five here one of this
32:32
Iowa all right six state okay Illinois
32:38
Iowa only six state Republicans had six
32:41
governors and the congressional
32:45
delegation they had five five
32:47
congressional delegation under the
32:49
majority of five states rational
32:51
delegation Democrats had one this was
32:54
fairly standard in 1890
33:02
all the governors and all the
33:05
congressional delegates all six were
33:06
Democrats very unusual very sudden
33:08
upheaval in other words the gradual
33:11
demographics as we’ll see but something
33:13
sudden happened that the changes a
33:15
sudden trigger shifted everything 8090
33:18
which by the way pave the way for the
33:19
1892 in Cleveland not only gets a second
33:21
term but captures both houses of
33:23
Congress for the first time this is
33:25
before the Civil War we have Cleveland
33:26
coming in for the Democratic House and a
33:29
Democratic Senate and we’re gonna usual
33:32
that period for the same party to have
33:34
both houses anyway certainly for the
33:35
Democrats so the very unusual is a big
33:39
change happened something big happened
33:40
in American happened American politics
33:42
the first of all demographic sir in
33:45
other words the in the Midwestern and
33:49
other places first of all a Catholics
33:52
tend to have a higher birthrate and
33:54
Protestants and one thing have like
33:58
usually not employ birth control in that
34:01
period so you had a higher natural birth
34:04
rate
34:04
what’s the fact the immigration in this
34:07
period from 1870 1980s immigration was
34:09
largely Catholic or German Lutheran with
34:12
high lukla liturgical Lutheran in other
34:16
words
34:17
in the Midwest for example there’s a big
34:21
decline from questions no big decline a
34:23
proportion of proportion of Baptists and
34:26
Methodists and a big increase in German
34:29
Lutheran’s and German Catholics by 1892
34:32
Catholic from the largest single group
34:33
religious group in the Midwest not true
34:36
in 1870 I say so you have the
34:38
demographics gradually building out the
34:41
Catholics and German Lutheran’s as the
34:44
majority getting to be a majority this
34:47
is a general trend we still have to
34:49
account for the sudden change in 1890
34:51
but over the 20-year period of the safe
34:54
right-side a Republican man realizes
34:55
remember we’re in deep trouble here the
34:58
same way in 1850s the Republican 1840s
35:02
and 15 Democrats are becoming a majority
35:03
party but they were they were shafted by
35:06
the slavery question which split the
35:07
Democrat here’s know slavery question
35:09
the Republicans realized they’re in deep
35:12
trouble here they’ve got to do something
35:14
the not the Republicans began to try to
35:18
do the German Lutheran’s with a swing
35:21
vote in other words the trick the
35:23
Catholic always voted Democratic
35:24
throughout and the German Lutheran’s
35:28
peda the vote Democratic except they
35:30
were except when they can be gotten on
35:31
the Catholic issue in other words the
35:33
government Luther and pay to the German
35:34
Catholics and the areas of the German
35:36
Lutheran’s up with it they’re not live
35:38
near German Catholics they go to a
35:39
completely democratic and they were
35:41
living nearby they thought of voting
35:42
Republican this is part of the ancient
35:45
law and those of us to hate them you
35:46
live near people you don’t like you
35:48
start voting against them so the
35:51
Republicans especially the Rockefeller
35:52
McKinley people were quite far
35:54
sightedness thing that I mean
35:55
Rockefeller was a favor of prohibition
35:57
but he realized he preferred profits the
36:00
prohibition and preferred victory so
36:02
they began against pragmatic so the
36:04
Republicans the shrewd Republicans like
36:07
McKinley and Rockefeller on Hannah who
36:10
look we got to do a guy get the German
36:12
Lutheran vote the way to get the German
36:13
Luther worth is a chrissake drop
36:15
prohibition one thing in Germany Bern
36:17
hated above all things the prohibition
36:18
even more than hate potatoes and
36:20
Catholics so let’s say you have a German
36:23
beer drinking now you leave Church on
36:24
Sunday immediately repair to a beer go
36:27
this is German culture German Catholic
36:29
and Lutheran if I didn’t want to have
36:32
fanatics outlawing beer
36:33
so the first so they germs the moderates
36:35
began a drop prohibition all right
36:36
forget about forget about somebody blue
36:38
Lord forget about prohibition we love it
36:40
we love you a prohibitionist but cooler
36:42
when I started doing that I started
36:44
picking up German Lutheran vote the
36:46
other hand they started losing their
36:47
militant prohibitions votes they had the
36:49
Republicans were in deep trouble here
36:50
they get more moderate they take out
36:52
German Lutheran’s especially if they
36:54
whip up anti-catholic sentiment like the
36:56
public school system in moon and
36:58
maneuver it they started saying the
37:00
Catholic on menace to our school example
37:02
McKinley won the governorship of Ohio
37:04
and he menu one I think bucking this
37:08
whole Trenton Democrats fight by
37:09
attacking Catholic so I think how much a
37:11
minister’s parochial school in those
37:13
days were getting government school
37:15
subsidy government subsidies so
37:17
attacking that attacking over medicine
37:19
says they couldn’t be very clear about
37:22
it because they couldn’t attack
37:23
parochial parochial school for Sager
37:25
than the Lutheran’s get upset had to be
37:26
very head of just whip up anti-catholic
37:28
sentiment and drop prohibition which is
37:30
what McKinley did down and they started
37:32
losing prohibitions both they said yes
37:34
selling out revolt you had in eighteen
37:36
seventies for example the greenback
37:38
party the pole inflation and pro
37:42
prohibition or pry athis there’s not a
37:44
single greenback or ass out of the South
37:46
was who was no Catholic than Lucca and
37:49
her green backer there were extra
37:52
publicans Expo and pyatters Methodists
37:54
Baptists etc and then the 1980s came the
37:57
prohibitionist party also bitter because
38:00
of the Republican sellout they thought
38:03
in what happened to for example give you
38:09
an indication in 1872 a Democrat could
38:13
have been resurgent Democrats like
38:15
idiots nominated Horace Greeley for
38:17
president who was a Republican anyway
38:19
with a pie attest and the prohibitionist
38:22
and so the semi socialists immediately
38:24
Laura Thoren democratic vote he was
38:25
smashed by grant leaving for me too they
38:29
didn’t do that again
38:30
1972 and Wisconsin I think in an Ohio
38:35
Republican it’s a suit of prohibition
38:37
state prohibition and under the end of
38:41
the agitation a woman’s prayer group I
38:43
guess the women’s prayer league for
38:46
outlawing alcohol women are always the
38:48
forefront of the pious in many ways and
38:50
so and in Wisconsin and in Illinois and
38:54
was stopping outlaw probe but an owl or
38:55
liquor immediately a German Lutheran’s
38:57
voted beat the Democrats
38:59
I mean beat the Republican shift of the
39:00
Democrats and prohibition was ever
39:01
repealed so the moderates you want to
39:05
call Matt the pragmatist me and
39:06
Republican Party in Hollis not to
39:08
realize look we gotta we gotta drop this
39:09
liquored crap he loves we’re
39:11
prohibitionist we going up shove them
39:13
inside and they start up a prohibition
39:15
party and they get laid votes that way
39:16
but they the pragmatist stuck to the
39:19
idea look you’re the more German
39:20
Lutheran a lot of prohibitionists so any
39:24
rate that would be so the way they try
39:27
to finesse this so what happened in in
39:33
1890 when have in 1890 is basically the
39:36
specter of prohibition suddenly hit year
39:38
before in the Midwest the
39:43
and both Wisconsin and and in I think
39:49
Indiana the epically no not to me
39:54
Indiana Ohio and I own in the end in the
39:59
end of a prohibition suddenly raises its
40:01
ugly head 1989 Republicans are sort of
40:04
dominant let’s say all of a sudden they
40:07
start they start when I happened with
40:10
the Ohio a band have prohibited the sale
40:13
liquor on Sunday I mean all saloons they
40:16
call no they’ve and liquor stores they
40:19
didn’t they were shrewd enough not to
40:21
enforce it on the german-speaking area
40:22
especially Cincinnati which was the only
40:24
German so this is very sure I am in the
40:27
pilot area that’s important help in
40:29
German area the whole woman so the
40:32
prohibition of supports get upset other
40:33
things just a petition to the governor
40:36
to enforce the law bat prohibiting let’s
40:40
say liquor on Sunday is 1889 the
40:42
governor was for regular the prohibition
40:44
it’s been anyway the Cincinnati group
40:47
the petition governor do this was called
40:49
a Cincinnati law-and-order Association
40:51
in Cincinnati among the Germans they
40:53
were known as evangelicals Stranglers
40:55
where they were pious and Strangler the
40:57
final question
40:58
crushed Liberty so forget that okay
41:02
evidences and he he removed the police
41:04
of Cincinnati and the states can do this
41:06
you know there’s no real home rule with
41:07
the faith of the eirick he kicked out
41:09
all the Polly the police board which is
41:11
ban aboard had set him one Commissioner
41:13
kicked out the board putting a new board
41:14
and one of them going forced a lot of a
41:16
help now this point was called their
41:19
immersion was called saloonkeepers
41:20
rebellion saloon keepers of Cincinnati
41:22
rose up a couple of hundred of them
41:25
that’s three hundred German saloon
41:26
keeper in Cincinnati said where this
41:27
abate although I sell liquor anyway
41:29
that’s to you and law and order takes
41:32
your associations petition for
41:34
enforcement crush them and thought were
41:35
and so on and the what happened then as
41:40
the Democrats truly said we were favored
41:42
home rule we want each each city and
41:44
area should be able have its own
41:46
kind of liquor law and as a result
41:50
course for Iker was kicked out in 1890
41:52
and massive kick out the German masses
41:55
rose up Lutheran the quarter Lutheran
41:57
rebellion and he not even before I could
41:59
kick that Democrat came in or appealed
42:01
Lee you know stop them fourth thing than
42:04
the ban on sunday liquor so that was so
42:06
I later on let’s kind of go into more of
42:08
this but the that sort of thing happened
42:11
in each state in the Midwest prohibition
42:13
is an anti German language education
42:15
between of two of them they mastered
42:17
this effect the German Lutheran’s almost
42:20
almost permanently know what not quite
42:22
permanently but that like a lot of
42:24
people immigrating this period but this
42:26
is a peak eighteen eighteen eighty
42:28
ninety to the peak of Irish Catholic and
42:29
a German Catholic and German Lutheran
42:32
immigration even though the what
42:33
Scandinavian Pietism immigration they
42:36
were outstripped by German and Irish
42:39
also there was more higher birth rate
42:43
among Catholics and Lutheran’s that were
42:45
among quiet this practice still true so
42:49
that the immigration plus the birth rate
42:52
method slowly but surely the Democratic
42:55
Party was becoming a majority party in
42:56
the United States there’s also a
42:58
one-party system in the south but we’ll
43:00
get to that another Democratic ticket
43:03
some slowly but surely demographics were
43:06
such the same thing was happening by the
43:08
way in 1842 except at that point slavery
43:10
split the Democratic Party in two and
43:13
giving room for the Republicans
43:15
apparently come in there’s no slavery
43:17
issue now but look as if the Democratic
43:19
Party was in great shape and the
43:21
Republican is not how to do something
43:22
and we’ll see we’ll see one thing one of
43:25
the things which spurred a radical
43:27
southern ship to the Democrats in 1890
43:30
when the Democrats took both houses of
43:32
Congress took the house right huge
43:37
majority say no and finally paving the
43:40
way for Grover Cleveland’s
43:42
land effect an effect landslide victory
43:44
especially compared to carrying both
43:46
mountains of congress wisdom
43:47
unprecedented in 1892 the way was paved
43:52
by sudden outbursts of hiatus fervor
43:56
especially prohibitionism the
43:59
republicans in 1870 probably put in
44:02
prohibition for example 1872 in the
44:04
thinking Iowa and Illinois Wisconsin and
44:08
the next year the Germans shifted
44:10
Democrat and they learned their lesson
44:11
they dropped from a bit prohibition
44:13
however the prohibitionist Republicans
44:16
were caught in a real problem one-half a
44:18
walk alone prohibition and will capture
44:20
German Lutheran votes the other hand
44:23
they lose the fanatical prohibitionists
44:25
and pious types within the hive over
44:27
third parties the Democrats always had
44:31
much greater party loyalty in the room
44:32
the Republicans and Whigs and
44:33
Republicans interest is my great moral
44:36
ideas and so they felt the Democrats
44:39
were leadership was getting ruled to
44:40
compromise the who to moderate or
44:42
sellout a they formed the new party
44:44
greenback party in 87 days which were
44:46
things inflation of party again
44:50
inflation fits in here why shouldn’t the
44:52
people were getting more purchasing
44:54
power from the government government
44:55
paternalistically giving them purchasing
44:57
power so either paper money inflation
45:00
which was the greenback or later on the
45:01
priests silver agitation where silver
45:04
becomes addition of gold
45:05
the inflation assemble and in 1880s a
45:11
prohibition party that’s very powerful
45:13
and takes a lot of votes away from
45:14
Republicans so the Republicans are sort
45:15
of caught between chronic and but they
45:18
realize with Lima graphics were with the
45:20
Germans so they began to get more and
45:22
more moderate especially headed by
45:23
McKinley and the Rockefeller Empire and
45:26
there was Rockefeller McKinley and Hana
45:27
in Ohio who are leading the rockefeller
45:30
pork love the pie at this but he said
45:32
look we love prohibition but a profit
45:34
the more importance than the morality
45:37
who are unquote and therefore we have to
45:39
drop these guys so at any rate so but
45:42
they didn’t but in eighteen late 1880s
45:43
comes a big surge of prohibition
45:45
sentiment and I’ve already gone through
45:47
a half
45:47
Ohio and Ohio when the enforce
45:52
prohibition of the hill
45:53
the Germans rebelliousness and SS of
45:55
German Catholics and Lutheran’s voted
45:57
Democratic in a landslide and in 1889
46:03
the governor of four acres were hardcore
46:07
prohibitions has kicked out 1891
46:10
two years later McKinley comes back as
46:12
governor but comes back in a very
46:13
different ticket
46:14
Rob’s prohibition is okay we’re not
46:16
going to enforce we’re not going in a
46:17
fourth prohibition in German area in
46:19
other words then and wet area so to
46:22
speak about prohibition support love
46:23
dries and the people who drank alcoholic
46:26
all the wets so in areas where they and
46:29
localities communities where the people
46:32
who drink we’re not gonna force it was
46:33
essentially the compromise McKinley
46:35
people put over and they and they openly
46:39
attacked prohibitionists as meddling
46:42
fanatics and things like that which
46:44
something only the German Lutheran’s and
46:46
Catholics would say McKinley people
46:49
began to talk in the same way I won’t so
46:50
another thing McKinley did Prasad a very
46:53
important thing that happened 1896 true
46:55
leading up to the climactic year he
46:58
began to drop the Republican Party had
47:00
always been since the Civil War
47:01
the inflation escorting other words the
47:04
party of greenbacks paper money
47:08
irredeemable paper money and silver
47:12
later on the Democrats will a hard money
47:14
part of the gold standard party and
47:19
so it took it took a Republicans 18
47:25
years of kicking and screaming to go
47:27
back Oh at old standard in after that
47:29
eliminate greenback money in other words
47:31
we were on an irredeemable Fayette paper
47:33
money center from 1863 or to 1879 14
47:38
years after the Civil War was over but
47:40
Republicans would be dragged kicking and
47:41
screaming back of the gold standard even
47:44
then it’s gold and silver standard until
47:46
the big fight about silver and going on
47:48
whether given the technicalities of it
47:50
the Republicans were known as a soft
47:53
money party which fits in with piety the
47:54
fictions person an idea the government
47:56
should be helping people out with
47:58
increasing their purchasing power the
48:01
Democrats are the hard money party and
48:03
so another thing of Democrats wanted to
48:05
restore free banking other words they
48:06
want to eliminate the national banking
48:09
system which essentially had a several
48:11
several I found banking system
48:13
susceptible inflation in 1891 McKinley
48:18
begin shifts his position there’s only
48:20
in a local level so wasn’t picked up
48:21
much by the National you know medians of
48:24
the state in Ohio he begins to come out
48:27
they were a gold standard for first time
48:29
it’s oddly this big shift in 1896 as
48:31
president presidential candidate because
48:34
they began to realize of the German
48:36
German Lutheran the German Catholic the
48:38
one thing above all else of course
48:40
they’re against prohibition the other
48:41
thing is very much a favor that goes
48:43
down they hated inflation purple passion
48:45
their pro gold is anything else interior
48:48
it’s the value they’re saving their
48:49
Germans are very thrifty group and they
48:51
realize that inflation’s way of
48:54
spoiling their savings so in order to
48:56
get the capture the German vote you’re
48:58
gonna Lutheran vote which in the middle
48:59
of West was the great swing vote two
49:01
things is there you rock prohibition
49:03
scuttle it start talking Mangold
49:06
McKinley was the first one to do that
49:08
realizing the demographics a situation
49:12
similar if they have an Indiana yeah it
49:18
began a drop prohibition shove it forget
49:21
it
49:21
or put on the back burner and they began
49:24
to adopt the GoPro gold position he’s a
49:27
person bighorn know the end adopt a gold
49:32
Santa position is a hard money
49:34
anti-inflation is the dish which was a
49:37
great very much the German the major
49:39
German economic the German American
49:41
economic program very much in favor of
49:44
gold as a hard money anti-inflation
49:46
escorting so that fit in with appliances
49:51
as I’ve already talked about the
49:52
quietest economic program which
49:55
protective parent and probe inflation or
49:58
big government eternal ISM yeah no no
50:08
quite the opposite huh
50:11
atheist yeah very very different applied
50:14
us a very strong believers in a pious
50:17
manner a theist
50:20
agnostic huh well McKinley begins the
50:26
ship on evident as a higher Republican
50:29
not as a national ticket begin being a
50:33
farsighted politician he needs to
50:34
realize that you have to capture the
50:36
German in order the Republican stand
50:37
when you have to get the German Lutheran
50:39
vote if you’re gonna Luther the swing
50:40
vote in order to get the drummer with
50:42
her vote yet they forget about
50:43
prohibition and start putting that goal
50:45
as a
50:48
Fortin monthly monetary standard anyway
50:52
that in Wisconsin Indiana the same thing
50:54
happened the Prohibition again was the
50:55
key thing and in Iowa the also important
51:02
middle western state again prohibition
51:08
becomes the the key point I all over the
51:14
state which had never been Democratic it
51:16
always been controlled by the publican
51:17
party always since the inception
51:18
whenever it started you know after the
51:20
Civil War the other thing but much
51:24
closer another word Illinois Indiana
51:26
Wisconsin had been hi oh I’ve been swing
51:29
state I had always been a Republican and
51:35
after the Civil War I overcame the
51:36
subject when pencil prohibition is
51:38
pressure as a matter of factly a
51:40
prohibitionist party really begins in
51:42
Iowa and also big with the first big
51:48
prohibitionists organization of the
51:50
women women’s Christian Temperance Union
51:51
really powerful would the WCTU women’s
52:02
act like women organized females with a
52:05
strong whole apply it doesn’t all we
52:06
haven’t been and they started having the
52:12
for the prohibitionist party was founded
52:14
before the WCT with family had women’s
52:16
prayer groups against alcohol and they
52:19
get together and they they pick it
52:21
somehow some bar saloon is even be cool
52:23
and with prayer leave this development
52:27
for the women’s Christian Temperance
52:28
Union and in 1875 they almost capture
52:34
the Republican Party of Iowa the
52:35
prohibitionist with the with the for
52:40
general weaver who would later became
52:41
the populist presidential candidate in
52:43
1890 the oles groups are great someone
52:45
the prohibitionist the pop greenbacks
52:48
party in 70 the prohibitionist the 80
52:50
the populist party in the 1900 very very
52:52
similar
52:54
finally in 1879 a prohibition has
52:56
captured Republican Party of Iowa a
52:58
convention they push for total
53:00
prohibition see what they haven’t
53:01
preview for that they had a statute
53:04
prohibiting alcohol the men giving local
53:06
option on where local communities could
53:08
have liquor each don’t have a many
53:10
states by the way in the south or
53:11
Southwest different counties will have
53:13
different local option when of course
53:15
high license tax you have any liquor
53:17
store or liquor a distillery or
53:19
something have to pay a high tacky the
53:21
methods of quasi prohibition but you
53:24
still have United States of course and
53:25
they write total prohibition I only been
53:27
put in by to send to state may in Kansas
53:30
both of work extreme private estates
53:32
outlawing all liquor period you know
53:34
just total so they try to do that in
53:36
Iowa and July 1882 they had a
53:40
constitutional amendment number with
53:42
outlaw liquor in the state of Iowa and
53:44
was defeated not use me in the past
53:47
same thing the big push the pepper or
53:50
the pepper as alliance or the main group
53:52
of favor of it saying this is morality
53:55
Christian morality and American
53:57
civilization of quarrel of pillow
53:58
prohibition law alcohol the the
54:02
Democrats Lutheran’s and Catholics
54:03
fought back by saying these are pure
54:05
puritanical fanatics fanatical preachers
54:08
who Lee Jones and other tournaments
54:11
often used by catholic diocese and
54:15
aggressing against personal liberty the
54:17
amendment passed by 55 percent to 45
54:19
percent then out on a technicality in
54:22
other words the supreme court said it
54:23
didn’t you know some clause other than
54:25
then quite work
54:27
but the result of this is a big shift of
54:29
Germans both the Democratic Party
54:30
Republicans got a little antsy about
54:31
this they think they went back on a
54:34
statute didn’t wanna have a consul
54:35
amendment they favored alien old German
54:37
voter permanently in Iowa so they went
54:41
back to statutory prohibition it kept
54:43
stepping that up
54:44
finally in 1889 the enforcement kept
54:47
expanding the old crop iotus takes over
54:50
a governor quest Republican in Iowa and
54:52
he starts an amateur politician see once
54:56
again the Republicans not a Democrat
54:58
that they believe that you can only
55:01
insure personal liberty to a political
55:03
party system were always much more party
55:05
loyal and a Republicans Republicans much
55:07
more interested in their abandoning a
55:09
party I think that they walk a little
55:11
bit so governor Hutchinson was an
55:15
amateur politician was a grocer with
55:17
this gun in the politician if we wanted
55:18
of course outlaw a little liquor to the
55:20
hilt and he says in his speech the
55:24
prohibition is a struggle for morality
55:26
and for the true devotion of the human
55:29
race the hardcore religious thing with
55:32
him or thinks he said that it’s
55:35
civilization the fight is a fight
55:37
between modern civilization on the one
55:38
hand the curses Barracudas of the saloon
55:40
that we put it the saloon by the way but
55:43
we’ll get to this later on on the court
55:44
and get to the urban problems the saloon
55:47
in addition being in the fountain
55:49
high liquor of course saloon DC’s the
55:52
serve liquor and and food at the same
55:55
time a little bit different for the bar
55:57
at any rate a saloon the purple of a
56:02
social center of all Catholic and
56:05
Lutheran males and still live by the
56:06
wife in New York our big city so what
56:10
happens is the
56:11
Irish or German or whatever male Africa
56:15
coming home at night repair to the local
56:17
saloon and spends the whole evening
56:19
drinking with his buddies and talking
56:20
politics and stuff like that socializing
56:22
women do other stuff but this is
56:24
basically the look still is I think the
56:27
Catholic Lutheran football ethnic social
56:31
light and so the saloon keeper becomes
56:32
the key political you becomes a
56:35
political boss of his area everybody
56:37
takes the their political views from the
56:40
saloon keeper you become something like
56:41
a reward healer so Patti somebody who do
56:44
you vote for Patti I’m voting for
56:46
O’Driscoll something like that everybody
56:47
in the neighborhood booth throw Driscoll
56:49
so the saloon saloons are not only
56:51
Fountainhead of evil to the fiber
56:53
they’re also a fount of urban ethnic
56:55
political power and so if they could
56:57
smash this Lily also smash the
56:59
Democratic Party ethnic machine in other
57:02
word for political machines of whoever
57:03
their major political strength of the of
57:06
the hated opposition there’s a control
57:08
thing one of you fight Thank You saloon
57:09
you’re destroying evil demon rum Nolte
57:12
destroy the political social base of the
57:14
opposition
57:16
so so in this fight to back back in
57:21
governor Hutchinson this fight the
57:23
commercial liquor in Iowa we reportedly
57:26
women’s Christian Temperance Union
57:28
prohibitionists the good pent lower than
57:30
other temperance group the Methodist
57:33
Church report very very heavy in this
57:36
and the also another thing I wanted to
57:42
push to with all outlying all
57:43
desecration of the Sabbath once again
57:45
another with me any activity on Sunday
57:47
not going to church should be outlawed
57:49
all part of the same stick including by
57:52
the way they want an outlaw whose papers
57:54
on Sunday get newspaper any activity new
57:56
favorite baseball games and railroads so
57:58
where nothing should be able to move on
58:00
Sunday through thee the objective of the
58:03
pious fanatics so the Democrats did and
58:06
it did a very shrewd thing for the Iowa
58:08
governorship election 1889 they picked a
58:10
former Republican they took the guy who
58:12
himself was a temperance person that
58:13
wasn’t self abstain even Agra fall oath
58:15
against prohibition against using
58:18
government force and do it and so they
58:20
take this guy would appeal the moderate
58:22
Republican so to speak and Harris boys
58:26
and in 1889 he won he the Democrats won
58:31
with for the first time in history of
58:33
Iowa won the election by fifty percent
58:35
at 48 percent and for the first time
58:39
Democrats win the legislature achieving
58:42
the Congress irrational delegation in
58:44
Congress so this is really like that
58:45
again the following year who you’re the
58:47
writer so in other words the Democrats
58:49
win in Iowa from first time in history
58:51
of Iowa because they’re fighting extreme
58:53
prohibitionist and anybody was slightly
58:55
moderate on the issue shifts the sort of
58:57
a moderate Democrat and win so
58:59
handwriting is on the wall here three
59:01
states freaky Midwestern states Ohio
59:04
Indiana and Iowa
59:07
go Democratic on the prohibition
59:09
question the prohibitions
59:10
being taken up on a Republican Party in
59:13
that area other two states were
59:17
we’re swung the Democrats on similar
59:19
question on liquor about other something
59:20
else another quiet this concern part of
59:24
education is over image crush the
59:26
Catholic parochial school systems forth
59:29
everybody into the public school were
59:30
together and Protestantism wasp
59:33
Protestantism
59:34
so the 1889 the new governor of
59:36
wisconsin Governor William horn public
59:40
and governor we began an amateur
59:42
politician first time you’ve been in
59:44
party the newspaper publisher and
59:47
finanical typist and this he passes a
59:51
war well first of all of whether law on
59:54
the books like a pottery education law
59:56
which was general had been passed by
59:59
many faith this is well however
60:01
requiring I get this not only should
60:02
everybody have to go to school all
60:04
education has to be in the English
60:07
language even private school no worth
60:09
outlawing all or use of German language
60:11
in any private or parochial school and
60:14
he starts enforcing this has been on the
60:15
books nobody pay attention to is valid
60:16
force the notorious Bennett law passing
60:20
state senator Bennett outlawing all
60:23
German language education whatever
60:25
matched to of course much of the German
60:28
that much of the parochial school
60:29
Catholic and Lutheran were in German
60:31
language since both these people were
60:32
recent immigrants this not only obsessed
60:36
the German Catholic the Wisconsin also
60:37
intestines you’re my Lutheran hey we got
60:39
four of your school so what is this and
60:40
so they’re big big opposition of it
60:42
blaming opposition to an assault on a
60:45
private school system
60:48
Kyra Zola’s in 1899 1889 where the
60:51
collection comes up the big Catholic and
60:54
Lutheran or organizing front now is a
60:59
repeal the ban on the Lord I was about a
61:00
little outline German language education
61:03
this is no no this is different for my
61:05
coming here from the argument now saying
61:07
I’m any safer this should be bilingual
61:10
education of public school this apply to
61:11
the private school worth outlawing all
61:13
use of German language in the private
61:15
school system parochial school system
61:17
say Corran Accord was the governor
61:20
Bennett was the guy in the legislature
61:21
who introduced the law so come to the
61:31
root so the in Milwaukee for example
61:34
here’s an idea Milwaukee which is
61:36
heavily German city in still is not as
61:39
much Milwaukee the Republicans vote in
61:42
1888 was 53 percent after the Bennett
61:48
law comes into play as the big political
61:50
issue he the following year Republicans
61:53
get in 1890 public and get only 25
61:58
percent of of the Milwaukee due to the
62:03
defection of German Lutheran’s you’re
62:04
losing that say of the swing vote so in
62:08
1898 question is should the Republican
62:10
horde yet be nominated for governor the
62:12
moderates on this guy’s a loser hungry
62:14
he’s going to lose it but he can lose us
62:15
the state are they trying to get rid of
62:18
him he was big pietism prohibitionist
62:21
coming from western and northern
62:23
Wisconsin with her pious Astaire which
62:25
were quiet of areas from knew how
62:29
general Norwegian immigrant was law work
62:32
also hated German be Norwegian pie at
62:34
this Lutheran pie at this
62:38
and not only the Horde was again an
62:39
amateur politicians he didn’t believe he
62:41
was lashed out he attacks by named
62:44
German like German people it’s the
62:45
Germans are evil somewhere so long it’s
62:47
not exactly the thing to do with a
62:48
politician even in that period so any
62:53
right he’s uh he’s Rena Maya and the the
62:56
election 1890 Ford was smashed that was
63:00
called a Lutheran landslide almost every
63:02
German Lutheran shifts the Democratic
63:04
Party and the Democrats sweep in or does
63:06
crush the first they do is repeal a been
63:07
on Wapner
63:08
like legislature meets after Republicans
63:11
voted to repeal another publicly the
63:13
beginning to see the jig is up mechanic
63:15
we can’t pee in this stuff together
63:16
change our perspective cuz we’re going
63:18
to be losers and Illinois the same thing
63:23
happened to Illinois they’ve had a very
63:25
similar law all the Edwards law
63:26
outlawing old German parochial German
63:28
language again the same thing happened
63:29
Democrats want when we have of the of
63:33
the six states a little West for or
63:36
crease for the five days
63:37
it’s only Michigan with something some
63:38
more happen three states stripped
63:42
democratic Pavano
63:43
prohibition question to state on
63:45
outlawing the German language the school
63:47
system a question and so the Republicans
63:55
realize I’ve got oh they’ve got to do
63:57
something here and they do something
63:59
rapidly to try to try to reverse course
64:03
and one thing they try to do is to
64:07
moderate get rid of prohibition dump it
64:10
moderate it led by McKinley and led by
64:12
the waterfall of people trying to do
64:15
that it’s difficult to do with the pro
64:16
fishes are getting more and more
64:19
intense the probe assure is getting more
64:22
and more fierce about this thing the
64:23
young people’s Christian society be kind
64:26
of all over the pipe they’re going to
64:27
pop up that it gave the Pietism
64:29
prohibition the Young Men’s Christian
64:31
Association crippled by this group YWCA
64:36
dedicated prohibition in quiet those are
64:39
now for that very innocuous another day
64:40
there was a big thing intense
64:44
propagandists also the women’s Christian
64:48
Temperance Union got through hygiene
64:50
courses in the public school system the
64:52
motive they were packing alcohol another
64:54
way another part of the pump again an
64:55
advice yeah they have liquor and hold
65:03
the enemy the case they are yeah yeah
65:11
but this is a in an alien Norway and I
65:22
went well Norwegian the Swedish Lutheran
65:26
scientists although even were with
65:28
biases they were a local church
65:29
appliances or the higher Lutheran German
65:32
lead reservoir formalistic no there’s
65:35
actually liturgical the whole attitude
65:37
was very close to the Catholics and a
65:40
sacrament isn’t worth normal Leslie yeah
65:42
Scandinavian which was very pious if
65:44
they were almost like Baptists and
65:45
Methodists are much different
65:46
the sweater Lutheran Church right so
65:52
anyway they want interesting thing is
65:54
for example in 1890s one of the reasons
65:57
why it was difficult but very difficult
66:00
for Republicans the drop-leaf
66:01
prohibitionists two hundred thousand
66:05
people which w’s Williams women’s
66:07
Christian Temperance Union set up a
66:08
World Conference regions a youth
66:10
affiliate
66:11
in 1992 200,000 members of the Royal
66:15
pepper is enormous
66:17
considering much lower population men so
66:20
scientists were getting stronger and
66:22
stronger and not so much in breath but
66:26
in depth and over their intensity of
66:28
feeling for example in 1892 in 1890
66:33
excuse me
66:34
of all the Midwestern college students
66:36
college students remember our elite
66:37
student that sunlight now everybody goes
66:39
to college a very small proportion when
66:41
they’re calling these also the leaders
66:42
of tomorrow pipe
66:43
two-thirds of all Midwestern college
66:45
students were Pyatt this and most of
66:48
them remember the YMCA YWCA which were
66:51
was which then was heavily Pyatt
66:53
pietistic University Chicago in 1892
66:56
this is really remarkable which is any
66:58
elite college even then they took a
67:02
presidential poll they always do
67:05
perfectly 1992 election and here you
67:07
have a poll of undergraduate there was
67:12
no graduate school I don’t think
67:14
University Chicago was founded by
67:16
Rockefeller Johnny Rocco as a Baptist
67:19
heavy rock Baptist heavy baptist or on
67:23
but any rate they had a preference
67:25
called over Cleveland or the Democratic
67:27
candidate or queer purgable their
67:30
undergraduate preference holy Bertie
67:32
Chicago we even got 52 votes President
67:39
Harrison who the Republican Indiana got
67:44
a hundred and fifty one votes I get this
67:47
another guy named Bidwell and I can’t
67:49
find his first name see how important he
67:52
was in American history he was a
67:53
prohibitionist candidate
67:57
you got a hundred and sixty four votes
68:00
other words big well guess wins the
68:03
University of Chicago undergraduate
68:04
election it’s pretty remarkable
68:07
considering most we think of college
68:09
students being more leftist than rest of
68:11
the Evoque here we have a situation with
68:12
either
68:13
Oh crop pie at this Cleveland getting
68:15
almost no votes you consider this is
68:16
like with FEMA gets one of the one
68:19
fifteen percent of a vote or something
68:20
of the major Democratic Party and the
68:24
prohibitionist winning out these are the
68:26
use of some of the leaders of tomorrow
68:28
unbelievable any rate so the what
68:36
happens with the prohibitions they
68:37
didn’t know what to do to know whether
68:38
they stick with a pro-business party and
68:40
be a balance of power party obviously
68:42
they weren’t winning because what was
68:44
happening the Republicans were getting
68:46
less and less prohibitionist sure they
68:49
stick with the Republican Party or just
68:52
a becoming a single issue / pressure
68:55
group and finally in 1893 you need two
68:58
women
68:59
prohibition is did very badly and
69:01
exciting every Chicago on the national
69:03
scale I didn’t badly
69:04
and so they finally decide the way to go
69:06
with a single issue single issue
69:08
organization which were then punished
69:10
reward your friends that punish your
69:11
enemies and they would pick a guy for
69:13
president or Congress just on the basis
69:14
of his vote on liquor and they set up
69:16
the anti-saloon League which became
69:19
largely responsible for eventually
69:21
putting prohibition across so that was
69:25
the they drop the provision aspartic and
69:28
prokovich has parties still around by
69:30
the way but gets like 20 votes basically
69:33
a prohibition is drop provisions party
69:35
in went through a single issue of
69:36
pressure group concept
69:40
so the Republicans in Hokkaido probably
69:42
realize we have to drop prohibition it
69:44
was tough to do it then how oldies
69:45
intensify to so they did it during the
69:47
1890s led by McKinley and Rockefeller
69:50
then they try other methods well let’s
69:52
see what we kind of did with let’s
69:53
restrict immigration keep it consistent
69:55
most of the immigrant work path like
69:57
let’s we can keep out immigrants
69:59
altogether will do well we will stop the
70:00
demographics from really against it the
70:03
Republicans begin anti-immigrant drive
70:07
there’s aside from the Chinese
70:08
immigration talk about well later like
70:11
the time of something which is this
70:12
special deal which started earlier and
70:16
particularly in 1880’s I say there was a
70:20
big German and Irish immigration then an
70:22
1890s beginning a specter of
70:24
red specter of opinion immigration even
70:26
more Catholics coming in okay we’re
70:27
gonna stop this so big drive by the
70:30
Republicans to restrict immigration they
70:32
started until 1882 immigration was
70:35
probably probably free United States
70:38
regulate only by New York state or any
70:39
other state they’re really essentially
70:41
not regulated at all in 1882 Republicans
70:46
pass a first step at immigration
70:48
restriction which is require every
70:51
immigrant to pay 50 cents 50 cent packs
70:54
he says though they you know meant
70:57
considerable amount over the fried all
70:59
working out something like that a kept
71:01
out poor immigrants and also all
71:05
ex-convicts were prohibitive him coming
71:08
in plus anybody would likely to be a
71:10
public charge anybody would likely be my
71:13
immigration official may go on welfare
71:14
whatever
71:15
so this or beginning of the immigration
71:18
restriction in 1886 we begin a drive by
71:23
state TV other today and aliens could
71:25
wrote much different from now aliases
71:28
vote if they only declare their intent
71:31
to eventually become a citizen they will
71:32
have a vote the states begin a
71:33
Republican could rotate in a tighten up
71:35
on after prevent aliens not just from
71:38
voting but also from being employed on
71:39
public works projects government public
71:41
works projects in other words the
71:43
anti-alien thing begins the late think
71:45
he needed six or so e 7 keep aliens from
71:49
voting in public employed on public
71:51
works in 1885 they pass a law
71:57
outlawing contract laborers display by
71:59
the labor union will get the labor unit
72:00
over later on maybe next time primary
72:04
baby units put through law knows that
72:06
you feed of a contract labor reports of
72:09
labor quote shortage on clothes always
72:10
us need more people lots of land and
72:12
very few people the businessmen will
72:14
contract with Europeans in Europe
72:16
agencies that bring people over as
72:18
contract laborers this was outlaw in
72:22
1885 federal government this is of
72:24
course to be outlaw people from becoming
72:26
contrary label it means they’re more
72:27
likely to become a public charge they
72:28
haven’t got a job worth waiting about
72:30
contract Labor’s you know you have a job
72:32
already and you’re coming on the boat so
72:34
this way you’re not allowed to have a
72:36
job in advance iam more likely to become
72:37
a welfare case or whatever they said
72:39
they could then ban people of being poor
72:41
because they put the five out of a job a
72:43
Tracy first you to probably leave a job
72:45
and then you say he hasn’t got a job
72:46
line up yessir prevent him from entering
72:48
the country there’s of course particular
72:52
attacks on Catholic immigrant hooray
72:55
explicit you know they have to realize
72:58
now that I considered at least on a
73:02
setting and probably immoral to be a
73:03
ragin religious and racial
73:05
discrimination obey them for what they
73:06
didn’t have these these restrictions
73:08
people which frankeour and so they said
73:10
the Presbyterians inin 1887 that we have
73:13
to keep out Catholic immigrants their
73:14
Ebola thing they talked about bohemian
73:16
bruisers and opinion cutthroats and the
73:20
National Temperance Society of pack half
73:22
a among us who they bring liquor and the
73:25
prohibition party attacked immigrants
73:26
the Catholic in we’re in
73:27
semi-independent Presbyterian Church and
73:29
all that another thing that comes into
73:32
this picture was use used by
73:36
as anti-catholic people and also
73:39
anti-immigrant the Grand Army of the
73:42
Republic a Civil War veteran means
73:43
northern of course Civil War veterans
73:45
the Jean var who are Oporto Republican
73:49
elites of a health offense they got
73:50
special job never Republicans gun in a
73:53
nice safe they’ll give proper to the
73:55
Civil War veterans a union veteran after
73:58
they worked in the 1880s they were their
74:00
Peaks membership 400,000 numerous number
74:03
of Civil War veterans all of whom at the
74:04
public trough getting the money getting
74:07
the boodle from the Republican Party
74:09
they were denouncing immigrants and
74:11
because they were a live a copperheads
74:13
and Rex rebel Network the Democrats
74:14
Southern Democrats
74:16
there were also flourishing new
74:19
patriotic secret societies or
74:21
anti-catholic anti-immigrant at like
74:23
half like the junior order of United
74:25
American mechanics begins 1980s 1889 at
74:29
60,000 people eight nineteen eighteen
74:31
nineteen hundred sixty thousand people
74:32
big organizations United order of
74:36
deputies which had 15,000 workers are
74:40
their employee with all employers fire
74:43
all Catholics no Catholics have a charm
74:45
now they that was their shtick I put the
74:47
not succeed and they went the sort of
74:49
pressure constantly finally 18 in the
74:52
eighteen late 1880s a very powerful anti
74:54
Catholic group called the American
74:55
Protective Association read APA and I
74:59
was growing up on 1930s Catholics were
75:01
still cooking about the APA I think it’s
75:04
fade away by that time was extremely
75:05
powerful walk pressure group
75:10
to protect American institutions from
75:12
the dread Catholics and they they were
75:18
founded in Iowa 88 in 1887 and with a
75:22
secret order and their secret plight was
75:24
never to vote ever vote word hacked like
75:26
Ronnie position in any position of any
75:29
sort it spread through the Upper
75:31
Mississippi Valley towns it swept omaha
75:35
and all authors in Midwestern states in
75:38
1894 had 500,000 pete members could be
75:44
equivalent amount of several at least
75:46
several million i chew up a population
75:48
whether they were much obviously much
75:50
smaller than now and so that wasn’t what
75:56
happened the APA was that they were
75:57
quick again almost completely a
75:58
republican and nothing new democratic
76:00
party but they had a problem and their
76:03
problem was what do we what do you do
76:07
about mckinley they hated mckinley guts
76:09
kuzzik emily was actually actually you
76:13
know quite a catholic the job and stuff
76:15
like that mckinley broke very early as
76:18
part of his moderation or part of it
76:19
giving him biases they’ve tried to best
76:22
to stop mckinley be nominating 96 we’ll
76:25
see about that later and they finally
76:27
went when he was nominated we didn’t
76:29
know what to do they really sort of fell
76:30
apart 1996 didn’t know whether oppose
76:32
him it couldn’t vote for the hate of
76:34
democrats they’re always kind of a
76:35
republic and they finally sort of began
76:37
to dissolve but they were very very
76:38
powerful for about 10 years
76:42
another thing was the Republicans were
76:44
and continued to be completely committed
76:46
the protective power very high
76:47
protective power keep out cheap foreign
76:50
goods one of the reasons they would go
76:53
in for immigration restriction is a quid
76:54
pro quo of the workers know with okay we
76:56
recognize that we have a protective
76:58
power of the app course living be much
77:00
more expensive and return for that will
77:02
keep out cheap immigrants the word will
77:04
increase wage rates of domestic workers
77:07
by keeping at the sort of like
77:09
okay we’ll put pro quo well we’ll get
77:11
our goods goods of our competitors
77:13
prohibited from coming out of state and
77:15
the return for that will give you
77:16
prohibited onions Chinese or whatever
77:18
they’re coming in the United States I
77:19
was there
77:20
there’s status coalition so to speak
77:22
yeah guys are opposed to the whole thing
77:26
favor of immigration their favorite act
77:29
like my party well the pence is in
77:41
control of Congress or the legislature
77:44
in the word Republicans or control they
77:46
find a passing on respective laws one
77:49
time point out here’s the Republican
77:50
Party was in a deep crisis they had a
77:53
they’re trying to do something about the
77:55
growth of seemingly inevitable growth of
77:58
liturgical parties and one way to do is
78:00
to keep out immigrants they try that
78:02
during the 1890s they finally dropped it
78:04
and we’ll see after 1806 but there that
78:06
was there they’re trying to figure out
78:08
what to do and what to do to redress the
78:09
balance what to do that get get pie at
78:12
us to win of the poll one way to keep
78:14
out immigrant workers is enough
78:15
immigrants if you know darn well I’m
78:17
there’s gonna be Catholic or Lutheran so
78:22
another thing was that they they tried
78:29
to restrict month another law they
78:32
passed 1891 Congress passed again I was
78:35
there for public administration to force
78:40
steamship distinctions are bringing
78:42
immigrants here to fourth the same shift
78:43
if the EM ago it’s that undesirable if
78:46
they likely to be a public charge or
78:49
whatever the forces seem should carry
78:50
the immigrant back free in other word at
78:52
their own expense obviously it’s maybe
78:54
the steamships mean less likely to carry
78:56
immigrants if they think that yeah a lot
78:57
of these people have to carry back ship
78:59
back on their own power so that they
79:01
passed this also they excluded illegal
79:06
aliens reporting any wiggling which is
79:09
mean to report them excellently people
79:11
with pages diseases that salute
79:13
polygamists there were such the big
79:19
drive on the part of the reply attests
79:20
and Congress came with Senator Chandler
79:24
of New Hampshire Republican New
79:25
Hampshire so the big anti-immigrant and
79:29
Henry Henry Cabot Lodge a Massachusetts
79:32
originally a congressman the name planet
79:34
Earth
79:36
I brought Boston Brahmin height their
79:42
big push for several years was now law
79:44
illiterate immigrants now with a make
79:46
demographic path illiteracy fest big
79:49
drive in 1883 and later and which is
79:56
kind of peculiar since American Native
79:58
Americans don’t have to pass literacy
79:59
tests but at any rate and they set up
80:02
for Brooklyn drama making honey for set
80:04
up the immigration restriction we
80:06
devoted enormous propaganda keep out
80:09
illiterate immigrants
80:10
I’m he’s been literate English of course
80:14
they said these immigrants coming from
80:17
Asia and southern Europe either
80:18
illiterate or criminals of both
80:19
therefore they should be excluded 1896
80:25
they passed the law they finally passed
80:27
the law at handy’s sick Luther Chandler
80:29
and lodges pressure outlaw force’
80:33
literacy tests and all immigrants was
80:35
then veto by Cleveland last Maxwell
80:37
almost his last act in Congress just
80:39
about ready to be kicked out even
80:41
heroically vetoed it and it didn’t pass
80:43
over at veto and also of course the
80:46
drive came to prevent aliens from voting
80:47
as I said before a lot of states
80:50
permitted aliens to vote they managed to
80:51
reduce it but not by much than was in 18
80:54
early 1890 to 18 southern and western
80:56
states member they only provoked by 1900
80:58
only 11 bit but Saul was a slow process
81:01
in other words they put in to put on a
81:04
big push to keep out immigrants and
81:06
Catholic they were slightly successful
81:07
but not much
81:08
looking over the decade work
81:11
they didn’t get very too far they also
81:14
tried something else okay if they if you
81:16
try that one one no with one drive try
81:18
to exclude immigrants from voting over
81:20
then later a vote another drive with the
81:23
put to make it expand the suffrage the
81:25
people who knew wouldn’t Pyatt it mainly
81:27
women although the women suffered to
81:29
drive now comes in the purely Piatt test
81:31
measure the reason is that’s the the
81:35
pilots knew very well that if women
81:37
voted if we were to give them a perk
81:38
limit we’re not voting in grates it’s a
81:40
few of the western states if women were
81:42
allowed to vote omotola voters would be
81:44
papaya fest because the because of
81:47
Catholic culture was such the Catholic
81:49
women did not would not vote where they
81:51
stayed home like while the men were
81:53
saloon women faint home and dental is
81:55
stopped it’s true hearted hard to
81:59
picture it now but if you good or bad
82:04
whatever it is I’m not packing value
82:06
judgment anyway the culture with sites
82:10
of the Catholic homes women would not
82:12
vote and so the an affiant is
82:14
knowingness Oh
82:16
push push for women stop wearing the
82:18
Catholic knowing the other thing
82:19
promoted against it so this is one of
82:21
the one of the big reasons for this the
82:28
so for example pressure Grimes was
82:30
written a regular book on the subject
82:32
says I’m arguing that the evidence
82:33
indicates is a large extent lease in the
82:35
West the constituency granting women
82:36
suffering to composed those who also
82:38
support a prohibition immigration
82:40
restriction and felt that women suffered
82:42
with further their enactment okay they
82:45
either the prohibition party in the
82:47
greenback party very early came after
82:49
women’s suffrage we’ll see you later the
82:51
Progressive Party nineteen problem not
82:54
only had women with the first group to
82:55
have women delegates a National
82:57
Convention also a woman elector and the
83:04
and most of the early feminist
83:05
leadership the early women suffered
83:07
leaders came out of the prohibitionist
83:09
movements is an anthony and frances
83:12
willard and people like that and they
83:15
began in other words the leaders in
83:17
women’s Christian Temperance Union and
83:19
they shifted over the women’s suffrage
83:22
movement the women’s Christian
83:29
Temperance Union for example was
83:32
involved in the following women’s
83:33
suffrage movement when the prohibition
83:35
curfew laws was everyone got to be in
83:38
bed by 10 o’clock or over the street
83:40
anti-gambling laws anti-smoking laws and
83:43
anti sex laws example Susan Anthony and
83:49
Ida Harper in their definitive history
83:52
of the women’s suffrage movement wrote
83:55
the following about the women’s
83:57
Christian Temperance Union when the
83:58
Christian Temperance Union a chief
83:59
factor in state campaigns for statutory
84:03
prohibition I mean provision alcohol
84:05
constitutional amendment reform laws in
84:07
general and those for the protection of
84:09
women and children particular and
84:10
securing anti-gambling and if I
84:12
cigarette laws there’s been instrumental
84:14
in raising age of protection for girls
84:16
in many states and painting curfew lower
84:18
than 400 pounds in cities the
84:20
Association protests against
84:21
legalization of war crimes especially
84:23
those of prostitution and liquors
84:24
solving and all these things were
84:25
grouped together by the women’s
84:27
Christian Temperance Union the women’s
84:28
suffrage movement
84:33
the women’s Christian Temperance means
84:41
as I said emerged on women’s prayer
84:42
anti-liquor prayer meetings and Ohio and
84:45
swept the nation the leading spirit of
84:48
women’s Christian Temperance Union what
84:49
practice Willard
84:51
what sort of pepero she was born of New
84:52
England stock parent would move west
84:55
where to study at Oberlin College in
84:56
Ohio to the center of Pietism for
84:58
decades several oak table biases
85:00
leadership later settling Wisconsin
85:04
she became corresponding Secretary of
85:07
WCTU and then came the president a
85:09
couple years later and then became
85:10
women’s suffrage first and moved on the
85:13
women’s suffrage movement sort of it
85:14
almost was one on the same and so
85:22
whenever and there were many western
85:24
states or some what if they’d had one
85:25
that suffered from very beginning and
85:27
they were almost all put in by quietly
85:28
the pyatters state and put in my pie at
85:30
this this is one charming thing that was
85:34
a vote for a Colorado referendum about
85:37
women suffered in 1877 defeated Susan
85:41
Anthony
85:41
Pepa fine before Congress and definitely
85:42
why we defeated she says Colorado 6650
85:47
six men voted yes I mean what yes
85:48
women’s suffrage
85:49
I’m gonna destroy the men who voted yes
85:51
she said they were native-born white men
85:53
temperance men cultivated broad generous
85:56
just men men who think it was a good guy
85:59
the other hand sixteen thousand seven
86:01
voted no I’m going to describe that
86:03
class of voters the southern part of
86:05
that say there are Mexicans who speak
86:06
the Spanish language the vast population
86:08
of Colorado is made up of that class of
86:10
people
86:10
I was sent out to speaking of voting
86:12
precinct having two hundred voters 150
86:14
of those voters were Mexican greasers 40
86:16
of them foreign-born citizens ten of
86:18
them of one of this country bitter at
86:20
pack on Mexican Americans of course
86:21
again being Catholic voted against
86:23
women’s suffrage
86:27
and the same thing happened in
86:29
California with an ultra appliances
86:31
where paper women’s suffrage so for and
86:33
so on some of it also the idea the part
86:40
of pyatters women the terrible thing to
86:42
have low type men voting where they can
86:44
convert really great it upon a they were
86:47
wealthy and upward class lost women here
86:49
the evil we see mek foreigners mexicans
86:52
or whatever we could vote even because
86:53
there were men i was part of the drive
86:55
here
86:59
women’s suffrage comes in and really in
87:01
mid 90s and mountain space we’ll talk
87:03
about that in a minute mountain station
87:05
were my only in Utah and Idaho and I
87:12
mean Colorado I guess yeah these are all
87:15
mountain states and they’re all mostly
87:17
Piratas the the special thing that you
87:20
talk with that kind of interesting you
87:22
thought forces heavily more money and
87:24
the Mormons were favorite women suffer
87:25
through than the Mormons can outvote the
87:27
other people there’s a moment every
87:28
moment eat wives or something you have
87:30
then multiply that more than vote by
87:32
each bowl so it was their shtick another
87:41
thing about the Western general a lot of
87:43
single men kind of to be sort of Richter
87:46
that you see some western movie so
87:47
gripped in and out of having on
87:49
unwholesome pipes a significant good
87:51
voting have a more subtle family type
87:54
voters we got the drifter type so it
87:56
portable
88:00
Frederick Jackson Turner Laurie
88:02
mentioned him as the historian who
88:04
popularized the frontier thesis I have
88:07
to realize about him the very much in
88:08
favor of the frontier ethic including
88:11
pyatters and everything else he’s some
88:12
to sum that up he said there’s a great
88:15
quote from Turner we said in the hour
88:18
the West that means but you know the
88:19
Prairie States and support so these
88:21
pioneers from New England the word
88:22
originally owned stock have halted and
88:25
have turn to perceive an alternation and
88:26
change social ideals if he followed back
88:29
a line of march of a Puritan a farmer as
88:32
you’ll see how responsive he’s always
88:33
been the isms in favor of those remember
88:35
he’s a he is the prophet of a higher law
88:37
in Kansas and flow Civil War he is a
88:39
prohibitionist of Iowa and Wisconsin
88:41
crying out I guess German customs and as
88:43
an evasion of traditional ideal he is
88:46
the Granger Wisconsin passing
88:47
restrictive railroad legislation he’s
88:49
the abolitionists the anti Mason Miller
88:51
right another iceberg
88:52
I shouldn’t say crazy otherwise people
88:55
believe that the world will come Jesus
88:57
returned on march 1843 birth center in
89:00
western New York March 18 40 40 feet
89:03
came and went
89:04
there wasn’t you know no Jesus returned
89:06
attended to the spread of the Miller
89:07
rights and they learned from that by the
89:09
way to pre the premillennial at that you
89:11
shouldn’t make precise predictions of
89:13
that for what you might be wrong the
89:15
woman suffered just the spiritual at the
89:17
Mormon of Western New York that’s really
89:19
sums it up no these are the this is a
89:20
watch pioneer Wasik quietest
89:24
frontiersman if they tried women’s
89:27
suffrage and passing a couple of
89:29
mountain states but not very much no
89:31
more these are these were gradual
89:32
measures they tried immigration
89:35
restrictions and more and worked a
89:36
little bit but not much they try limits
89:37
off ready to work a little bit not much
89:40
and another thing they did which was
89:42
more important than long run is they say
89:45
put in the Republicans put in during
89:47
1890 a bunch of crummy Mountain State
89:50
their states here are these mountainous
89:52
states for example and they in 1898
89:59
Canadian are in 1890 those two years
90:05
Republican legislature puts in of space
90:09
Idaho Montana Wyoming and Washington and
90:16
and the Utah makes it a few years later
90:20
I D 96 this there were no people there
90:24
have to realize there are hardly any
90:25
people in Montana and Idaho now much
90:27
less 1890 they’re all people I bigger
90:30
how come the how Canada qualifies safe
90:32
notice what happens if they mean each of
90:34
each of these crummy one-horse States
90:36
gets two senators okay they’re fully in
90:39
a situation where they’re two senators
90:41
from state to almost no people on them
90:43
why do they do by the Republicans do
90:44
this Republicans did it because these
90:45
will apply it these are all biases
90:47
they’re a few Catholics and maybe a
90:49
Luther in the Navy State these were
90:50
Caiaphas knew darn well easily add to
90:53
the piasa strength and Congress or and
90:56
and the two parties and these are all
90:59
free silver state your inflation if they
91:01
throw at silver mines all these days and
91:04
silver with the big cry of the inflation
91:07
is in this period I would reach out to
91:08
silver as money not just gold or
91:10
stretched silver a little more abundant
91:12
go we have more higher prices of this
91:14
quiet this free silver of them pious
91:17
social values that were comes into the
91:19
picture so Republic available a fully
91:21
for state in the picture that’s a longer
91:23
run more important than the other stuff
91:25
even though it seemed to be important
91:28
okay let’s take a 10-minute break
91:29
machan celebrating happen in 1896 a big
91:33
cataclysmic event
91:35
for the entire political point each
91:37
system changes in other words the the
91:39
party system have been talking about its
91:41
so-called third party system last night
91:44
of 1854 approximately ended very
91:46
abruptly in 1896 and whole party system
91:49
changes the whole ideology changes and
91:50
the whole ethno-religious support for
91:53
the party’s changing the question is
91:54
what happened what the story here the
92:01
basically what happened this is the
92:05
something happens the Democratic Party
92:07
of the personal Republican Party of
92:09
getting more moderate in other words
92:11
they’ve been realized these other things
92:14
women’s suffrage was only a long-term
92:16
thing prohibition was dropping anyway
92:18
immigration restriction of the only
92:20
long-term begin to get much more
92:22
moderate yep we really retaining boat
92:25
makes is basically a protective power of
92:27
their key plank giving up I mean I call
92:31
the social issues in one of the things
92:39
even in the early eighties for example
92:41
in 1990 when the Republicans are still
92:43
in they passed a silver purchase law
92:45
Sherman Silver Purchase law subsidizing
92:47
silver miners of the mountain state and
92:52
also of course did pivoting and plate as
92:54
an inflationary law when Cleveland gets
92:56
their motors first acted to appeal at
92:58
Silver Purchase Act and worth of go back
93:00
to a gold solid gold standard and one of
93:08
the one of the things he was supposed to
93:09
do Cleveland with it were to eliminate
93:11
the National Banking Act to permit free
93:16
Banking with state banknotes which is
93:18
existing before the Civil War you know
93:21
unfortunately went back on this play
93:22
probably do it with Morgan supporters
93:24
and Morgan obviously do not want to have
93:26
a free banking system but
93:33
so we have a very different party a very
93:37
different party system what happens in
93:39
the convention of 1896 the Democratic
93:43
convention is it suddenly and this is
93:46
with brewing for a couple of years this
93:49
point suddenly the Democratic Party is
93:54
captured by a very different group and
94:02
but we have to see is how come this
94:04
happened what was the what was it
94:07
but pave the way for them Democratic
94:10
Party is suddenly captured by an ultra
94:12
quiet this group rewarded by people who
94:14
are much more kinder than Republicans
94:17
and we’re very much in favor of fury’
94:20
status in favor of inflation increase
94:22
silver government regulation in separate
94:24
and prohibition one with everything so
94:27
all of a sudden the Democratic German
94:30
Catholic Lutheran would consider who
94:34
growing up in the Democratic Party were
94:35
loyal the Democratic Party would never
94:36
vote Republican or any circumstances
94:38
all of a sudden fine – they find a
94:40
Democratic Party the party of their
94:41
fathers is call has been captured by
94:43
monstrous group of extreme scientists in
94:47
the meantime the Republican Party got
94:49
more moderate for gondol McKinley
94:51
Rockefeller influence I had em across in
94:56
the captured by pyatters when the whole
94:58
thing whole history Democratic Party be
94:59
just the opposite was a tremendous ship
95:01
July 1896 convention at Chicago where
95:08
the fight of headed by the famous or
95:11
notorious William Jennings Bryan on the
95:14
brass to capture the
95:16
Democratic Party well we can see certain
95:21
things that happened the first place see
95:23
well one thing the mountain states have
95:25
become states as I said last in the last
95:27
hour other word Wyoming Idaho Montana
95:30
and Munk my only way home Montana and
95:37
Utah the other state and watch it going
95:40
to become state either all pie at this
95:43
so they added to the Democratic height
95:46
of strengthen democratic party then the
95:47
Senate no of course not the leadership
95:49
another thing that happens is that the
95:52
and the panic of 1893 well before I get
95:56
to that so when you have a map new
95:58
mountain state to apply office then you
96:01
have the South which is been democratic
96:04
which is a civil war southern fighters
96:07
who are not int and we’re not even
96:09
Jellicle they were so quiet Pyatt that
96:11
they would be everybody should be born
96:12
again we don’t bother anybody else they
96:15
were not converted to the Yankee
96:16
position over there increasingly become
96:18
prohibitionists the southern baptists
96:20
southern methodist which had held back
96:21
from the sort of thing for 50 40 50
96:24
years and now get converted to the
96:27
evangelical position and now you have
96:29
the south on becomes pi at this in other
96:32
words Southern Democrats on clientís so
96:38
this is a big change of course which
96:39
means a whole block
96:40
the salad him increasingly one-party
96:43
state after the Civil War blacks of the
96:46
South where almost all public in a white
96:48
drone with all Democratic after the
96:51
1880s back blacks were systematically
96:53
disenfranchised in the south by the
96:54
so-called progressive movement
96:56
south he wound up wind up by by 1900 or
96:59
so with no blacks voting almost
97:01
literally southern states you know you
97:02
have a one-party region remember the
97:04
South now becomes a democratic
97:06
fully Democratic region and all now
97:08
becoming pious this of course shifts the
97:10
balance within the Democratic Party
97:13
let me get the south of southern
97:16
mountain so called West it really means
97:19
Mountain States a hiatus
97:23
another thing happens is the panic of
97:27
1893 which occurs just after poor
97:30
Cleveland me Cleveland gets to be
97:31
President those days the president’s
97:33
inaugurated the March they march first
97:36
and I think and this before he nominated
97:42
this before he takes office the panic of
97:44
1893 begins with a bankruptcy of some
97:46
railroad and then a couple a month or so
97:48
later the holding of the bank panic he
97:51
just had a bad luck the commented at the
97:53
beginning of a bank panic and general
97:55
freeze depression brought about of
97:58
course by the bank previous bank credit
98:00
expansion and all our heard every few
98:03
every ten years of five years of stuff
98:05
you again to the nationalized banking
98:07
system which was set up in the Civil War
98:09
but question of people in realize are
98:10
they blame Cleveland okay so this sort
98:12
of panic so the result of that you know
98:16
the Democrats had swept in in 1892 and
98:18
1894 they’ve lost the half of represent
98:20
I think even what the Senate there was a
98:22
big shift because of the depression is a
98:25
temporary thing and in the word the
98:27
Democratic Party gets thus credited for
98:29
a while it didn’t have to be then have
98:36
to be permanent but what happened to the
98:39
people who lose their seats in other
98:40
words in this temporary 1894 shift of
98:44
the Republican the people lose their
98:47
seats are are they Cleveland leadership
98:49
in other words the libertarian Democrat
98:51
so to speak the big shot in the east and
98:53
governors and Senators in the East and
98:55
the Middle West who were so cool
98:57
Cleveland Democrats lose their seats
99:02
which creates a power vacuum in the
99:03
Democratic Party cuz it means they’re
99:05
probably party leadership you probably
99:06
eastern and midwestern with purgable
99:08
pipes three people who are lazy a fair
99:10
part of money pre-trade Democrats all
99:13
right
99:13
this means are the
99:14
power vacuum opening for the southern
99:16
and mountain people a peg over it just
99:18
so happens only the bad luck was with 89
99:20
e4 collapsing the Democrats because of
99:23
the depression which is purely temporary
99:24
leads the path open for the Brian
99:26
Knights to take over in 1896 so the
99:32
result in 1895 in 1896 and another
99:34
chronic in the individual state the
99:35
Brian eyes begin to take over the
99:37
different state parties the this is not
99:53
really so what happens is Brian begins
100:02
to put together with coalition old crop
100:03
pilot southern Pilot Mountain save
100:05
hiatus so go vacuum and leadership in
100:07
the eastern little blood will take over
100:10
the convention 1896 was a big blow but
100:13
you can see it was coming they would
100:14
begin to be able to predict it by the
100:16
early 1890s six of something a kind of
100:18
cosmic change is gonna happen and then
100:20
we’re chronic party the as a result of
100:28
that the Republicans begin to see the
100:30
handwriting on the wall of course it
100:31
looks like events the Brian is gonna
100:33
take over the Republicans that
100:35
systematically start dropping even more
100:37
so or the piasa stuff that they were
100:39
found with prohibitionism and
100:40
anti-catholicism and anti-german of them
100:44
nor rest of it and they start and the
100:46
Morgans who were have been correctly
100:48
running Democratic Party begin to
100:50
realize the Brian eyes are taking over
100:52
the mortgage of a committed of the gold
100:53
staying at this point and so the Morgan
100:55
forces in the Republican Party start
100:57
dickering on McKinley the Rockefeller
100:59
forces the
101:05
the Morgans were pushing that the
101:07
Republicans had a convention I think in
101:09
June in other words the month before in
101:11
st. Louis and Morgan’s been pushing to
101:16
Levi P Morton become president
101:18
presidential nomination Levi P Morton
101:20
had been the vice president of the
101:22
Democratic ticket I was in the Cleveland
101:23
administration he was the Mike’s first
101:25
one New York Democrat head of the Morton
101:30
trust company very close friend and
101:31
buddy of JPMorgan and later became the
101:33
more interested company later becomes
101:35
part of the Morgan Guaranty Trust which
101:38
is now for the big Morgan Bank
101:39
commercial bank anyway very close buddy
101:42
of Morgan he done he shipped party in
101:46
1896 they see the handwriting on the
101:47
wall the more the conservative Democrat
101:49
the libertarian Democrats either the
101:50
Brian I for taking over and he’s a
101:53
pushover the Republican nomination when
101:55
McKinley the Rockefeller people behind
101:56
McKinley they have a big high-level
101:59
negotiations mark Canha and I can they
102:03
go on Morgan Fiat I think had two
102:04
meetings or more in the yacht but he had
102:06
a big yacht you want to expect and and
102:09
there and they’re discussing the whole
102:11
situation and Henry Cabot Lodge with one
102:14
of Morgan’s top people in this thing
102:16
anyway they make it they strike a deal a
102:18
deal of this Morgan say look you gotta
102:21
adopt a gold standard that I could be
102:23
committed to go with them if you’re
102:24
committed to go stand them well back
102:25
McKinley for the presidency can take
102:28
Bryan if on the other hand you don’t
102:30
accept Lee goes down I’m not that you
102:31
will either perform a third party or
102:34
drop out or whatever and so the deal was
102:37
then struck the Republicans for the
102:39
first time in 1896 imagine adopted those
102:42
standard as a commitment basic
102:44
commitment in other words they accept
102:47
the anti-inflation frankly the Democrats
102:48
been fighting for over seventy years
102:51
virtually 15 years
102:55
and this is a big thing also thickening
102:57
of the German remember the German German
102:59
American local Catholic and Lutheran
103:00
place their greatest two things they’re
103:03
mostly interested one is stopping
103:04
prohibition through the bowls and and
103:06
here the Republicans finally have
103:07
committed dropping the prohibition stuff
103:09
they’re saying all of it and pushing the
103:12
gold standard now the silver Republicans
103:16
really committed the free silver split
103:18
from the party
103:20
I think the split was organized by
103:24
Senator William Teller up Colorado who
103:26
was himself a one of the founders
103:28
Republican Party who was he and his
103:31
Mountain State Republican both the
103:34
convention II they formed their own
103:35
party called the National silver ticket
103:37
color by the way himself with only two
103:39
million dollars worth of silver silver
103:41
mining sock and so forth even
103:44
particularly is interest in silver with
103:45
more than just abstract any writing so
103:50
the silver of course is did leave the
103:51
Republican Party they believed they
103:52
supported Bryan up from their own fourth
103:54
party ticket but these is a small a
103:56
small price to pay for German Lutheran
103:58
support and a knife a got a silver
104:02
Republicans gone the McKinley people
104:05
could say we are the gold standard party
104:06
interesting enough most historians when
104:09
they deal with period think talk about
104:11
the Republicans mean the gold fan a
104:12
party not realizing it’s only happen
104:14
1896 before that was if the opposite so
104:17
McKinley in other word gives that
104:18
prohibition adopts the gold standard
104:20
meantime Bryan takes over the Democratic
104:23
Party as an old come across populist
104:25
ultra prohibitionist personal inflation
104:27
s
104:29
so as a matter of factly the first step
104:34
of the Chicago Convention is Democrats
104:37
the first vote what should we honor at
104:38
Cleveland call Cleveland still the
104:40
president he had two terms in office not
104:42
as an anti third term tradition so he
104:45
doesn’t not gonna run
104:46
but first vote what should we honor
104:48
Cleveland which is sort of a thing you
104:50
almost always do that that was voted
104:52
down by the Bryan high convention that
104:54
was when that happened of course
104:55
Cleveland people knew the jig was up
104:57
matter of fact the Cleveland people from
104:59
then on Cleveland and supporters kept
105:00
saying Democratic Party as dead as we
105:02
know it was the party of our fathers
105:03
they were pretty dead Brian was a
105:07
southern stock southern thought pyatters
105:11
born in southern Illinois he was a
105:12
Southern Baptist I great believer in
105:17
compulsory morality and safe social
105:19
amphitheater for the righteous
105:20
prohibition all the rest of it the so of
105:27
course it’s a them Glenn the question is
105:29
what what does a late day ferry Democrat
105:30
to do what do they do about this Brian
105:32
is taking over the port and see if they
105:33
had any guts they would form a third
105:35
party they said okay no probably parts
105:37
taking over we formed here bile is a
105:39
fair party whatever you want to call it
105:40
they didn’t have the guts to do it some
105:42
of them wanted to do what others said
105:43
Wow we don’t know when maybe should be
105:45
the Kenpo mckinley they did put some of
105:47
them live for the national democratic
105:48
party called the gold emma Kratz but
105:52
only a few of them and
105:54
you didn’t have a gun thing and they
105:55
didn’t want to the Eastern Democrats
105:57
wanted to keep their control over the
105:58
eastern Democratic Party which they’ve
105:59
lost anyway and so the whole thing sort
106:03
of fell apart but basically what
106:05
happened was the most liturgical
106:07
Democrat Cleveland Democrats voted for
106:09
McKinley I would they struck the bargain
106:11
was struck
106:12
achilles not so bad anymore it’s not
106:14
given our prohibition a pro gold and so
106:16
there’s a big enormous shift by German
106:18
Catholic and Lutheran’s to the
106:21
Republican ticket the first time polish
106:25
champion Polish Catholic in the
106:26
dedicated Catholics many of them were
106:28
two Republican huge ship a huge shift
106:31
both way it was a huge shift out of the
106:33
Democratic Party might buy Catholics and
106:34
Lutheran’s and a big shift into the
106:38
Republican Party by PI into the
106:39
Democratic Party by peipus Scandinavians
106:42
what sort of stuff the shift was more
106:44
pronounced as the Republican Party
106:46
changed was more gradual and democratic
106:48
party to shift how do the Democrats are
106:49
more severe another work of biggie
106:51
enormous ship there’s also a counter
106:53
after Pyatt this prohibitionist I think
106:56
prohibition is more like liquid of
106:57
themselves into the Republican Party the
106:58
Democratic Party as the populist did too
107:01
it just became Democrats basically so
107:03
the whole the whole ethanol religious
107:05
thing shifted it’s something else
107:09
happened see the old days the rule was
107:12
no rural rural Irvin slick in other
107:14
words there were lots of farmers were
107:16
were Catholic and Lutheran and such etc
107:19
there’s no big urban rural so there is
107:21
now even
107:23
the most historians talk about the brian
107:26
night movement upsurge of rato all the
107:28
farmers in my country nothing that’s
107:29
rich if it was really true the big up
107:32
surging after it how come Ryan was
107:34
crushed in the general election
107:35
crushed three times the mat by 1896 1990
107:39
no 8 if you had a mass popular uprising
107:41
because most historians tend to be Pro
107:43
Brian being what liberals identify with
107:45
Brian Ryan represent an upsurge against
107:47
against the rich against big business
107:49
how come my enrollees crushed every year
107:51
and something wrong here your benefit
107:52
also farmers did not vote for Brian
107:55
particularly again the breakdown is
107:57
Catholic and Lutheran farmers voted for
107:59
Republican and pyatters farmers voted
108:01
kind of the voter from prove Ryan rate
108:03
that’s a very simple breakdown
108:05
ethno-religious break tax up now it’s
108:07
just the opposite
108:08
in the old days so what happens the
108:13
democratic party from now on it and then
108:14
on begins to become a the the ethnic
108:19
group which least effective in the
108:21
cavity of the Irish the board the German
108:23
defected on math the German Catholics
108:25
and Lutheran’s and they thought well he
108:27
me and Catholic from whatever the ones
108:29
are really stuck the Democratic part of
108:31
the Irish Masek Beatty reason the Irish
108:33
essentially went into the civil service
108:35
where the Irish immigrants that came in
108:37
on that faith summer even became civil
108:39
servant named sanitation workers public
108:42
schoolteachers
108:43
policemen and firemen okay and so they
108:49
were state they were and those they the
108:50
rebels
108:51
real civil service most of the jobs
108:54
would pick on his job if you let the
108:55
Democratic Party means you’re out of a
108:57
job couldn’t afford to leave it so the
109:00
Irish stuck the Democratic Party is was
109:02
those of that Democratic Party from now
109:04
on after 1896 begins to become a to wing
109:08
party one the subtlest south and to
109:11
urban Irish machines and lemon and the
109:15
City noteworthy essentially the northern
109:16
Democratic Party has taken over by the
109:18
Irish become governors mayors
109:20
senators other side of the washed
109:21
Democrat previous want
109:24
Cleveland pipes that kicked out the
109:27
Irish take over now result of this it
109:31
was kind of the alienate six other
109:34
successive ethnic group like Italian
109:36
Catholics we didn’t particularly like
109:38
Irish so they began to be tempted by
109:40
Republicans and with over the years and
109:42
then on tania’s no longer no longer call
109:45
a Democratic as a Catholic would have
109:47
been for 1896 so you have a strange
109:50
situation we have the Democratic we
109:52
begin to get them we’re after 1896
109:55
really new party system the Republican
109:59
Party becomes the majority party no more
110:01
a big it’s very close race except for
110:02
Woodrow world yeah that’s right you’ll
110:09
see I think that’s a great quote huh hey
110:18
party
110:21
well the ghost has been given up by all
110:23
the power at least the point and the
110:25
Germans unfortunately forgotten about
110:26
the gold Wow oh no I’m sure why he has a
110:41
little different situation at this world
110:43
war two the Rockefeller Morgan type to
110:48
essentially run the establishment of
110:49
both parties families remember grants
110:51
establishment Republicans where say
110:53
Reaganites are more Sun Belt
110:57
Safin what that’s a Texas in Southern
110:59
California Sun Belt I this is much this
111:01
is post-world war two development before
111:03
World War Two the Rockefeller Morgan
111:05
breakdown more or less holds since World
111:08
War two it’s very different
111:09
Morgan’s become jr. client plays eighty
111:12
five plays
111:15
before World War two the the me right
111:18
now since World War two the Morgans
111:19
become junior important if the
111:20
Rockefellers I know nearly not nearly as
111:22
strong we all become predominant each an
111:24
establishment before World War kit was
111:26
very different the whole thing oh yeah
111:29
there’s it somewhere honor absolutely oh
111:31
yeah my goodness okay well let’s let’s
111:35
put it this way Mikey the Eisenhower
111:37
administration a guy demonstration okay
111:39
the Secretary of State with John Foster
111:42
Dulles I mean head of the CIA which
111:46
those days and almost equal power the
111:48
secret organization no accounting
111:50
anybody from Allen W Dulles his brother
111:52
and the head of the Berlin desk of a
111:55
State Department
111:56
Eleanor Lansing Dulles sister right now
112:02
there’s a secretary okay ii who work who
112:04
are the ballots family is this really
112:07
true and they whole whole united face
112:08
with a lot of talent well one one lousy
112:11
family could run the entire foreign
112:12
policy united states who are they listen
112:16
being beloved people who are they well
112:17
they were all of the both develops
112:18
brothers were lawyers Oliver Cromwell
112:21
with the Standard Oil lawyer no longer
112:22
fellow lawyers okay also the
112:25
Undersecretary of State which is a
112:27
number two position of State Department
112:28
helm I’m extremely beloved represented a
112:31
Christian Herter of Massachusetts my
112:33
beloved I mean it sort of personally
112:35
beloved by New York Times Newsweek and
112:37
Time magazine for people praised like
112:39
this or a room so Christian heard her
112:42
then the Secretary of State who was
112:43
Christian heard or even a former
112:46
Republican congressman the massachusett
112:48
of charisma
112:49
66 or something and a bad foot limp made
112:53
him a romantic figure anyway is really
112:54
important but he’s married to a Pratt
112:56
and wife of member the Pratt family
112:57
which is gonna rock I call a families of
112:59
1880
113:01
Standard Oil family so that’s the whole
113:04
whole Eisenhower foreign policy was
113:06
Rockefeller foreign policy things
113:07
beginning to the end
113:09
now that’s important
113:11
like filly bull you know example the
113:15
Carter Administration was also selling
113:16
lock apart and file an oil Commission so
113:19
it doesn’t have to be to be both parties
113:21
there’s a lot of feel great so much
113:23
going on Morgan Morgan than after them
113:24
let’s say junior partners are not
113:26
quality
113:27
we’re post-world War two oil and then
113:30
it’s a big young big thing any rate we
113:34
get back to leaf is 1896 the for gold
113:41
becomes a key Indy the key point so the
113:45
year what happens that the Democratic
113:47
Party after that becomes a one horse
113:49
party basically a minority party with
113:51
publicans become the majority or a no
113:53
longer close elections this last
113:55
nineteen ninety six and throw 1932
113:59
except for the Wilson administration
114:02
Republican Party was split down the
114:04
middle for rockefeller Morgan leaving C
114:06
and the Democrats become a minority
114:10
party consisting only of the south and
114:11
an Irish New York big-city machine other
114:15
words uh New York working whatever but
114:17
you’re essentially Irish and Irish party
114:19
so we have a South plus Irish Irish big
114:24
city
114:26
by the way the one funny thing with the
114:28
Democratic convention 1924 when we
114:32
compel in New York City in the summer
114:33
quickly have realized there’s no air
114:35
conditioning then they had a huddle II
114:36
for balance
114:37
I mean went off a weeks very hot old
114:40
Madison Square Garden Southern Baptists
114:42
and Methodists pyatters coming up at
114:45
confronting New York Irish pipes scared
114:47
stepper than Jessica the Jesuits are
114:49
behind every every Pappas tree every era
114:51
they would make of them at any moment
114:53
unbelievable culture clash in the
114:56
southern Democrat and the New York and
114:57
the big city Irish Democrat arguing
115:00
about prohibition a lot developers Irish
115:01
never accept a prohibition of it’s like
115:03
by the way prohibition comes in a
115:05
democratic administration during World
115:07
War one and Wilson more than all women’s
115:10
suffrage comes in the Democratic for
115:11
immigration restriction comes into the
115:13
Democrats and prohibition comes in the
115:17
Republicans no more drop it after that
115:18
yet in they figure we’re the majority
115:19
party which would work putz around with
115:22
prohibition the other that’s all
115:23
nonsense like with that we’re in and
115:25
we’re gonna be in from now on so that
115:27
was the Republican senators they become
115:29
the majority party except for these
115:33
fringe groups really isn’t a massive the
115:37
Democrats become so we have is
115:39
Republicans in the centrist courting
115:41
there was not ideologically strong so a
115:43
middle-of-the-road party in general
115:44
except committed a protective parent and
115:50
a Democratic Party after a fling with an
115:51
ultra quiet that sort of drop begin to
115:53
drop that and they both become
115:55
progressive in other words by after 1900
115:57
it won’t become status party moderate
116:00
stated when you want to call it so
116:01
called progressive because in other
116:03
words very little different after about
116:05
nineteen hundreds of the pain Republican
116:06
Democrats except for the lingering
116:08
ethnic or southern regional orientation
116:11
so this is a support party system eighty
116:14
ninety three and the thing about the
116:18
fourth party says which continues to
116:20
this day in the fifth of six party
116:21
groups and wherever in it the parties
116:23
are no longer ideological though the
116:24
parties now become like like we no one
116:27
loves today very very little choice I
116:30
will put love in quotation mark becomes
116:33
not a logical people have number that
116:35
people begin to lose it for other words
116:37
the turnout rate means eligible voters
116:40
would turn out to vote which which is
116:42
very high on and they make
116:43
nineteenth-century very high in 1896
116:45
very high before about 90% the
116:47
presidential elections against the drop
116:48
people don’t really came out much I
116:50
guess the one point of two parties
116:51
become very close together people lose
116:53
interest as the people lose interest it
116:55
means that this explains why to live
116:57
always a fair party after 1896 there’s
116:59
no body of people fighting for free
117:01
trade free market than other stuff
117:03
and this leaves a power vacuum open
117:05
search for progressivism in the welfare
117:06
state warfare stay where our core
117:08
another word after the pay-go of 1896
117:11
that lays a fair people lose their party
117:13
if you lose a party oh that you’ll need
117:15
to lose politically / if there’s nobody
117:17
coming in to refuel in our opinion the
117:19
agitation of propaganda whatever and so
117:22
this is the this another work explain
117:23
why it it’s you know I was always
117:24
puzzled by the fact I can understand why
117:26
statism takes over after 1900 actually
117:28
become status big business member come
117:30
to say that it will see but what
117:32
happened the Democratic Party what
117:33
happened the party which was a bastion
117:34
of libertarian Lee’s Affairs cinnamon
117:36
what happened they got taken over and so
117:38
the party system then loses the point of
117:41
an ideological spokes spokesman and the
117:45
whole system then her party voting
117:48
becomes less important even technocratic
117:50
in a peg over administrative bureaucrats
117:52
intellectuals they begin to take over
117:53
without the parties being a check on in
117:56
other words democracy really loses a lot
117:57
of its savor because I mean you don’t
117:59
have a powerful party system Widing
118:01
heard on the other on the other parties
118:03
you have animal if you do have two
118:05
parties they collaborate for example how
118:07
come the Queen’s Republican parties
118:08
there’s nothing about their means I’m a
118:09
chronic trickery here Sam said a word he
118:12
they probably won’t because I’ve they’re
118:14
all and cahoots together anyway no real
118:16
they’re going tagging is not like a good
118:17
old age number each party hated each
118:19
other’s guts now there’s nothing I hate
118:21
him they just a bunch of some kook then
118:22
it together so why why rock the boat you
118:25
don’t have a great ideological
118:26
passions that you did when you have
118:28
Pietism bridges laid a fair after stuff
118:31
at all a shot for making 96 on anyway
118:35
some marvelous and lovable stuff I just
118:37
want to quote one thing here about the
118:40
reaction of the Germans to the to the
118:43
take to the Brian nights that things
118:47
extremely extremely lovable here
118:52
where is this the later that the
119:32
get us an idea of what happened example
119:35
Wisconsin heavily German state 1896
119:41
okay for example and a couple of pounds
119:44
ships really very heavily German
119:46
Lutheran in Wisconsin for two Township
119:50
the thing is strike ended the other part
119:52
that they aren’t that striking install
119:53
one of us discuss this Bergkamp and
119:56
shipped Wisconsin the others Theresa
119:59
Township and then these two pan ships in
120:03
1892 these are all devices solidly
120:07
German Lutheran’s how we can know how
120:08
we’re how Lutheran voted because liberal
120:10
people are not people settle
120:12
neighborhood then I was on a melting pot
120:14
United States with a mosaic every little
120:16
parish was different
120:17
so this Township which is solidly German
120:19
Lutheran in 1892 vote with eighty five
120:23
percent democratic Norman my name one
120:26
percent to reason that was almost almost
120:27
unanimous
120:28
1894 because of the depression of the
120:31
flight falling off eighty-two percent
120:33
Democrat maybe one percent of a graph so
120:36
very solid in 1896 because of a Brian
120:39
I’d take over Huck this hurt Patrick
120:42
voted forty six percent of our crown
120:44
only three percent of Auriga normally
120:47
dramatic ship never vote a Republican
120:49
our lives in a state as a whole my whole
120:53
day of Wisconsin and the German
120:55
Lutheran’s
120:59
voted 85% Democrat in 1892 and 1890 and
121:11
1894 they go to 59 percent Democrat
121:13
heavily depression in 1896 they would
121:16
have 30% Democrat massive ship there’s a
121:20
Brian ISM one grace charming thing is
121:22
there’s a memo in Milwaukee running for
121:25
Democratic congressman was guy named
121:29
Richard shilling he was a Brian Knight
121:30
he has a meeting before the German
121:32
masses of Milwaukee trying to explain to
121:34
them and now be called Freeman I tore
121:36
Keynesian monetary Theory namely why
121:38
don’t have to have goal as money he says
121:40
you don’t have to have goal with money
121:42
anything else to do just as well as
121:43
goals the German masses in Milwaukee
121:45
said you can have silver as money you
121:47
have paper or copper or paper or
121:49
sauerkraut or sausages who’d be good do
121:54
just as well with money that point of
121:55
German master Milwaukee who didn’t want
121:57
to face two eggs and cabbages and oil
121:59
Anaheim drove him off the stage
122:00
the Republican Party now being committed
122:03
the goal and being very shrewd
122:04
immediately coins slogans shilling and
122:06
sour kraut sauerkraut money and sweat
122:09
Milwaukee for the first time in many
122:10
years the Republican Party that’s the
122:12
sort of stuff that happened with a and
122:16
not only that but the young on most of
122:19
the German head of the integral
122:21
communist anarchist movement German and
122:24
don’t forget the Communist anarchism or
122:26
favor of abolishing old money period
122:27
I think folks revolution or money he
122:29
came out in favor of a gold standard 89
122:31
expected charming so dedicated the goal
122:35
with the government with the German
122:36
masses he probably had to come out he
122:38
too is the favorite gold as the Illinois
122:42
stopped sight tongue set in 1896 the
122:45
German American paper Illinois said
122:47
looking back on the election and the
122:49
German electorate they said the Germans
122:51
have had many complaints against a
122:52
Republican Party which annoyed and
122:53
though we’ve been continually with
122:54
prohibition law sunday-school Lord Sonny
122:56
closing more than school law
122:58
Germans consequently turned that backs
123:00
upon the Republicans there’s all the
123:02
Cleveland with quite selective and if a
123:04
Democrat that island scribe appreciation
123:05
bankruptcy and dishonor upon their
123:07
colors as a result of their union with a
123:09
populist and Brian the Germans would
123:11
have supported them this time also so
123:12
that was the and they say that was the
123:14
from a hallmark of the ship of
123:17
democratic ship and we get into a fourth
123:18
party system very different non
123:20
ideological party Republicans winning
123:22
most of the time and this only changes
123:24
with a new deal with depression in the
123:26
thirties and we get a Democratic Party
123:28
system basically laughing another you
123:30
know called a the 70s okay that’s enough
123:33
heard million

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